Friday, May 30, 2014

Debtor in Cardiff Gaol

Industrial Revolution in South Wales - The Nantyglo Ironworks
Since the blog post Cousins of Some Degree, the scans of many nonconformist records have become available on Among these are those showing the baptisms of the children of William Tilley and his wife, Mary Wallington, my 4xgreat grandparents, through my stepfather.

There are also scans of baptismal records of the children of their son, John Tilley, and Hester Knight at the Independent congregation of Kingswood, Wiltshire. They are:

Date Baptized  Name  Place/date of birth            Parents                  Abode    Occupation
Oct 6 [1822]     Mary      In the parish of Kingsd  Jno & Hester Tilley  Kingswood  Weaver
                                      on the 2 day of                formerly Hester Knight
                                       Decr 1821
Jany 18 [1824] Lewellyn In the parish of Kingsd  Jno & Hester Tilley  Kingswood  Weaver
                                      on the 21st day of           formerly Hester Knight
                                      November 1823
 Augt 13 [1826] Daniell   In the parish of Kingsd  Jno & Hester Tilley  Kingswood  Weaver
                                      on the 22 day of              formerly Hester Knight
                                       May 1826

The 1841 England Census have John Tilley, Age 40, Weaver, and Hester, also age 40 living on Town Street, Kingswood, Wiltshire. They were not born in the county, but that may only be a result of Gloucestershire being but a stone's throw away. This record does have the correct names, ages and occupation. Moreover, the Tilleys next door neighbors are Jonah and Elizabeth Knight, who, given their surname, could be Hester's brother and sister-in-law.

I have previously hypothesized that John and Hester moved out of Kingswood (and baptized more children elsewhere), largely because I am accustomed to seeing large families. It is of course possible that they stayed put, but were unable to have more children. I believe this 1841 census record is for the same John and Hester as the baptisms. There is currently no evidence to suggest they had moved between 1826 and 1841.

By 1851, however, I am fairly sure that they had moved to Bedwellty, Monmouthshire. The next part of this post explains why I believe this is so.

Bedwellty lies in South Wales, one of its chapelries in 1868 being Tredegar. During the late 18th and early 19th centuries the Industrial Revolution came to South Wales. The presence of coal, iron ore and water power prompted several enterprises to develop the green valleys for the large-scale industrial production of iron. According to wikipedia, Tredegar's population grew from 1,132 in 1801 to 34,685 in 1881. The South Wales valleys would be a natural place for workers migrating from Gloucestershire, in search of work in coal mines, ironworks or the shops serving the growing community. The picture above of the Nantyglo Ironworks (situated in a neighboring valley) depicts the pollution that came with this kind of development. The human cost would also be high.

Among search results for John Tilley in the 1851 census, I came across one from Cardiff gaol:
     John Tilley Prisoner for Debt Mar 52 Linen Draper Gloucester, Dursley

Meanwhile, in the same census at 41 Charles Street, Bedwellty is the following household:
     Hester Tilley       Head           U 55 Grocer and Draper Gloucestersh, Berkeley
     Elizabeth Davies Grand daughter 7 Scholar at home    Gloucestersh, Woottonunderedge
     Eliza White         Visitor              19                         Gloucestersh, Kingswood

That same month, the London Gazette of 29 April 1851 reports an impending hearing for discharge from bankruptcy at the County Court of Glamorganshire for three people including:

John Tilley, late of the Tredegar Iron-works, in the county of Monmouth, Grocer, Tea Dealer, Draper, and Dealer in Furniture.

These last three records would appear to be related. I can at least relate the Hester Tilley 1851 census return to our Tilleys. In 1850, Llewellyn Tilley married Elizabeth Vivian in Rhymney. The BMD Marriage Index for this couple is: Dec1850 Abergavenny 26 29. The marriage registration, which I have in hand, reports:
       19 October 1850 at Rhymney Church
       Groom: Llewellyn Tilley  Full Age  Bachelor  Shopkeeper  Rhymney
                         father: John Tilley Shopkeeper
       Bride: Elizabeth Vivian   Full Age  Spinster       Rhymney
                         father: John Vivian Confectioner
       signed: Llewellyn Tilley and Elizabeth Vivian
       witnessed: John Tilley and Eliza White

This second witness, Eliza White, is also the visitor on Hester's 1851 census return. Her presence at the wedding and in Hester's household the following year connects the Jno and Hester Tilley of Llewellyn Tilley's baptism and Hester Tilley, Grocer and Draper in Bedwellty. This makes it highly likely that the debtor in Cardiff Gaol is Hester's husband. In the absence of further entries in the London Gazette, presumably John's discharge from bankruptcy went smoothly.

Continuing from here, the 1861 Census at Bradley Street, Wotton under Edge, the first household of District 1 has:
       John Tilley   Head   Mar   61    Grocer        Gloucestershire, Kingswood
       Hester Do    Wife    Mar   65                        Gloucestershire, Berkeley

This indicates that by this time they had returned to Wotton under Edge.

For the 1871 Census, the best I can find is this one at Eglantine Place, Wotton under Edge:
        Esther Tilley Head Widow 78 Pauper Glocshire, Woodford
The age is a little high, but Woodford is an outlying settlement of Berkley, Gloucs.

There are two BMD Death Index entries for Hester Tilley that make sense, given age at death:
       Hester Tilley Jun1874 Dursley 6a 141 Age:79
       Hester Tilley Sep1881 Dursley 6a 128 Age:85

In additon to the Death Index, census returns also show two Hester Tilleys living in the Dursley area by 1861. One is the wife of our John Tilley and the other is the wife of Charles Tilley. In 1871, Charles and Hester are living at Whites Row, Cam, Gloucestershire. Curiously, in 1871 both Hesters are reported as Esther, but in other respects are consistent with other records reporting the name as Hester:
       Charles Tilley   Head   Mar  74  Gen Lab    [Glos] Wottonunderedge
       Esther      Do     Wife   Mar  74                       Do                Do

The BMD Death Index has:
       Charles Tilley Mar1881 Dursley 6a 170 Age:85

While the 1881 England Census for the Workhouse in Dursley has:
       Hester Tilley  Inmate   85     [Glos] Wotton

And this, I believe is the Hester who dies later that year. Therefore I would conclude that Hester the wife of John Tilley dies in the second quarter of 1874. Given that Hester is a widow in 1871, but not in 1861, her husband must have died during that interval. The BMD Death Index has:
        John Tilley Jun1864 Dursley 6a 142

No age given on the earlier index entries, but this is one of only two John Tilleys in the index for Dursley between 1861 and 1891; the other dies aged 60 in 1873, and is thus too late and too young to be our John Tilley.

Looking for a Hester Knight born in Berkley, Gloucestershire about 1796, England Births and Christenings 1538-1975 have Hester Winterbottom Knight, the daughter of Daniel and Phebe. Indeed Hester is one of several siblings baptized to parents of those names in that area:
       Hannah Knight   10 Feb 1788   Stone, Gloucs.
       Edmond Knight  30 May 1790  Stone, Gloucs.
       Danl Knight        21 Apr 1793  Stone, Gloucs.
       Hester Winterbottom Knight
                                     3 Jan 1796   Berkeley, Gloucs.
       Jonah Knight      24 Apr 1798  Thornbury, Gloucs.
       Joseph Knight      3 Aug 1800  Thornbury, Gloucs.

The last two are from the Register Book of the Presbyterian Meeting House at Thornbury. Both were born in the Parish of Berkeley, while the record for Joseph adds that this was in the Tything of Stone, and that he was baptized in Newport.

The appearance of Jonah among these baptismal records recalls John and Hester's next-door neighbors for the 1841 England Census, and adds to the evidence that perhaps we are on the right track.

In summary, we have some evidence pointing to John's wife being Hester Winterbottom Knight, the daughter of Daniel and Phebe Knight, resident in Berkeley, Gloucestershire. Whoever she is, John and Hester appear together in Wotton under Edge, Gloucestershire from 1822 until 1841 or later. John's occupation is Weaver. We next see them in Tredegar in 1851 (John, at least, is there by October 1850 to sign his son's marriage certificate) as grocers, drapers, etc., and by this time John has suffered a bankruptcy. They have returned to Gloucestershire, still grocers, by 1861, when they live until their deaths in 1864 (John) and 1874 (Hester) respectively. A brief window into the lives of two of my 3xgreat step-grandparents.

Tuesday, May 27, 2014

Foxes and Bunnets

During my summer stays with Nan and Granddad Green, I remember playing the card game Woodland Happy Families. The cards were simply old back then; now they are vintage collectibles from the 1940s. If you recall the game, the aim is to collect sets of Mr., Mrs., Miss and Master of different animal families, all delightfully illustrated. Importantly, you had to remember to ask with a "please", and receive with a "thank you", or else forfeit your turn. And so, from card families to genealogical detective work.

In case, dear reader, you were wondering which generation we're onto, the previous three posts are focussed on: first, Henry Stroud (Lieutenant RFC), my great grandfather, and his parents, Robert Stroud (Building Contractor and developer of Ilford) and Charlotte Norris, my 2xgreat grandparents (The Strouds of Barley Hall); and then Robert's parents in turn, Henry Stroud (Hairdresser) and Ann Neill, my 3xgreat grandparents, briefly considering the possibility of John Stroud (Servant from Marylebone and Hairdresser) and Zipporah, my 4xgreat grandparents (Henry Stroud Hairdresser of Hanwell); and, in the last post, Ann's parents, William James Neill (Cow Keeper) and Ann Fox, my 4xgreat grandparents (Keeping Cows and Carting Coal).

For each great grandparent, there are two 2xgreat grandparents, and - assuming no marriages of cousins - four 3xgreat grandparents, eight 4xgreat grandparents, etc. It soon adds up. Including my stepfather's family, I am working on the ancestors of twelve great grandparents, since each parent has four great grandparents. Thus I have 96 4xgreat grandparents (64 biological and 32 step-ancestors). Today, we move back a further generation in an attempt to identify some 5xgreat grandparents, of which I have 192! In this case, the parents of Ann Fox.

I should preface the collection of data presented here with a cautionary note. The identity of Ann Fox, wife of William Neill, to Ann Fox, daughter of William Fox and Ann Bunnett is by no means certain. In this post I aim to show where I am in the research on this line. 

As previously posted, William James Neill and Ann Fox are married at Chiswick, St Nicholas in 1817. According to the National Probate Calendar, Ann Neill dies 30 January 1865 aged 73 years. She is enumerated in the 1841, 1851 and 1861 England Censuses. By my reading, the latter two reported her place of birth as Norfolk, Caustee, and Norfolk, Cosly. The transcripts have Caversfield and Cosby, neither of which looks correct to me. See what you make of them below. None of these is a real place in Norfolk.
Census returns with Ann (Fox) Neill: 1851 (above) and 1861 (below)

First, recall that neither William nor Ann signed their marriage certificate in 1817; they made their marks, presumably unable to write. If in the 1840s and 50s they could not read, they would have told an enumerator or a neighbor their census details, but they could not have checked whether the spelling on the census form was correct. We have to work backwards. The question is: what were the enumerators trying to render here?

I first thought of Costessey (pronounced Cossey). There are three Roman Catholic baptisms in Costessey for the surname Fox between 1780 and 1810, according to Anastesia (15 May 1789); Robert (13 Nov 1791); and Charles (18 Mar 1895) - parents Robert Fox and Mary (or Maria) Hatton. Anastesia could have been shortened to Ann, but England Marriages 1538-1973 records the marriage of Anastatia Fox and Jonathan Wilkinson in Costessey (Cossey) on 2 Nov 1818, which would her out as the future wife of William James Neill.

The next possiblity I thought of, and my current hypothesis, is Corpusty, in Norfolk pronunciation "Corp'stee", but additionally with the "p" dropped in a London way to Cau'stee or Co'sty (in the second census, I'm supposing the tee didn't get crossed in the enumerator book).

When I searched for Fox born in Corpusty, Norfolk from 1780 to 1810, I found England Births and Baptisms 1538-1975 do indeed have a suitable candidate and some siblings, children of William Fox and Ann Bunnett.
       Ann Fox bapt. 12 October 1792 parents: Wm. Fox and Ann Bunnett
       Stephen James Fox bapt. 31 December 1794 parents: William Fox and Ann Bunnett
       Edmund Fox bapt. 16 September 1799 parents: Wm. Fox and Ann
       Elizabeth Fox bapt.19 July 1801 parents: William Fox and Ann

England, Select Marriages 1538-1973 records the marriage of William Fox and Ann Bunnett at Saxthorpe, Norfolk (neighboring parish to Corpusty) on 4 March 1792.

Next I searched UK censuses, using the search engine, for Fox born in Corpusty, Norfolk between 1786 and 1806, Norfolk. Top of the list was in 1851 resident in Hanwell, Middlesex:
       James Fox      Head        M  55   Gardener                  Norfolk, Corpusty
       Sarah Fox       Wife         M  50         do    Wife             Buck, Wexham
       Charles Mellest Nephew U  16   Gardener's Labourer  Middlesex, Hanwell

In 1861, they are on Boston Road, Hanwell:
       James Fox    Head   Mar  65  Market Gardener    Norfolk
       Sarah Fox     Wife   Mar  60                                  Buckinghamshire

While in 1841, and still in Hanwell, we have:
       William Fox  80  Gardener  No[t born in Middlesex]
       James   Do    40                   No
       Sarah   Do    44                   No

In the above censuses James Fox might be the Stephen James Fox baptized in Corpusty 1794. The age is consistent allowing for enumerator error and the vanity of respondents. His place of birth is given as Corpusty on the 1851 Census. And the William of 1841 is consistent with the father of the baptism.

Following up on the nephew, Charles Millest is the son of George Millest and Hannah Fox, who were married at Ealing St Mary on 3 January 1824. This family is found in Hanwell in the 1841 Census, about three households away from William James Neill, Cow Keeper, and his wife Ann - who, if the Corpusty connection is correct, would be Hannah's sister:
       George Mellist     40  [No occupation]    Y[es, born in Middlesex]
       Hannah  Do         35                                Y
       Henery   Do         11                                Y
       Jane       Do          9                                 Y
       Charles  Do          6                                 Y
       William   Do          4                                 Y
       Mary      Do          2                                 Y

Note the spelling of Mellist (the transcript has Mallis). George Millest dies before the next census. The BMD Death Index has George Millest Sep1849 Brentford 3 3. His burial record at Hanwell St Mary is 16 September 1849, age 50 years. Hannah Fox lives to 1891 and never remarries. The BMD Death Index has Hannah Millest Jun1891 Kingston 2a 145 Age:87. Her burial record at Hanwell St Mary is 6 June 1891, age 88 years, resident of Surbiton.

Hannah's census records have Hanwell, Middlesex as her place of birth. The parish register at Hanwell St Mary records the following double baptism 22 August 1813:
       Hannah born 27 July 1803 [daughter of] William and Ann Fox 
                                                              [resident in] Hanwell [Occupation] Tailor

       Charles born 17 July 1810 [daughter of] William and Ann Fox 
                                                              [resident in] Hanwell [Occupation] Tailor

BMD Death Index has: William Fox Jun1845 Brentford 3 2. Hanwell St Mary has the burial date of 15 June 1845, age 85 years.
BMD Death Index has: Ann Fox Dec1840 Brentford 3 2. Hanwell St Mary has the burial date of 3 January 1841, age 71 years.

These two sets of death and burial records, the double baptism and census returns reported in this post definitively link parents William Fox (Tailor, sometime Gardener and resident of Hanwell) and his wife Ann to the following children: James (Market Gardner, born in Corpusty and resident of Hanwell), Hannah (wife of George Millest), and Charles (born 1810). We can say for sure that James Fox, born in Corpusty, moved to Hanwell in time for his sister Hannah to be born there in 1803, and later Charles, and that their parents were named William and Ann.

How does this tie in to Ann Fox, wife of William James Neill (and my 4xgreat grandmother)? She is another Fox who moved from Norfolk to Hanwell. If the census enumerators are trying to render Corpusty, Norfolk as her place of birth, then we have a likely baptism record. In this case, the other Corpusty baptisms of the children of William Fox and Ann (Bunnett) are surely her siblings. And if Stephen James Fox, baptized in Corpusty, Norfolk, is James Fox, Market Gardener in Hanwell, then we have located more of Ann's siblings and we know a little more about her parents (and my 5xgreat grandparents).

Now, do you have information on a Mrs. Fox please? You do? Well, thank you! Happy Families!

Saturday, May 24, 2014

Keeping Cows and Carting Coal

We move back a generation from yesterday's post to William Neill and his wife Ann.

From his daughter's marriage record, we know he is a Dairy Man and that she is from Hanwell. When I began this last year, several others on had been there before me, making the research easy. But I also discovered that some public member trees had Ann Fox for his wife, while others had Ann Howden. In looking for the documentary record of this family, I was also on the lookout for any clues to her true identity.

I will start by progressing forwards in time through census records from 1841. Living in Hanwell, Middlesex we have:
       William Neill   40   Cow Keeper     Y[es, born in Middlesex]
       Ann        Do    40                            Y
       William   Do    13                            Y
       George   Do    10                           Y
       James    Do     8                             Y
       Edmond  Do     6                            Y
       Jane       Do     3                             Y

The 1841 Census does not list relationships, although we might infer from the above that William and Ann are parents, while the five minors are their children.

In 1851, still in Hanwell:
       William Jas Neill   Head      Mar  57  Dairy Man & Cow Keeper      Uncertain
       Ann              Do    Wife       Mar  58                       do  Wife            Norfolk, Caustee
       William        Do     Son         U    23   Labourer                                Middx, Hanwell
       George        Do     do          do   20     Do                                           do         do
       Jane            Do    Daughter do  13                                                     do         do

By the 1851 Census, relationship to head of household is listed, and we can confirm three of the children. We are also able to a middle name for William. And there are discrepancies between 1851 and 1841 as to place of birth for William and Ann. In 1841, they are both reported as born in Middlesex (Y on the form). In 1851, Ann's place of birth is in Norfolk (although there is no such place as Caustee - or even Caversfield as the ancestry transcript incorrectly has it). Meanwhile, William's place of birth is listed as "Uncertain", when it should at least have Middlesex. I suspect the census enumerator was dealing with Ann, and that she was uncertain as to where he was born.

In 1861, on Boston Road, Hanwell (the previous returns do not list a street):
       William Neill    Head             Mar   64    Dairy Man           Middlesex, Brentford
       Ann Neill         Wife              Mar   67                                Norfolk, Cosly
       William Neill    Son               Mar   33   Coal Merchant     Middlesex, Hanwell
       Charlotte Neill Daur-in-Law  Mar  30                                    Do         Ealing
       Jane Stroud    Grand Daur            11                                   Do         Hanwell
       John Savage     Do  Son                8                                     Do         Westminster
       Elizabeth Neill   Do  Daur               1 mo                               Do         Hanwell

This census return is highly informative. William (senior) has a place of birth: Brentford, Middlesex. A possible baptism, allowing for non-standardized spellings, would be the one recorded at St Mary Ealing (also known as St Mary Hanwell):
       Neal   William James son of William & Ann.
                                             born November 5th: 1796. baptized October 15th: 1797

Before widespread literacy, names were not standardized in spelling so it's worth looking for variants of a name. For Neill, that might include Neil, Neal, Neale, Niall etc. I have not yet looked, but there are likely some siblings baptized here in the 1790s as well.

Ann's place of birth is still Norfolk, but now Cosly - another nonexistent place.

It is reassuring to find Jane Stroud here, confirming that this is indeed the family of Ann Neill, who married Henry Stroud, the Hairdresser of Hanwell.

William Neill (junior) is now married, and presumably Charlotte is his wife. We find at Hampstead St. Stephen the Martyr on 21 April 1860, the following marriage record:
       Groom: William Neill  30  Bachelor  Labourer    Portland Town
                           father: William Neill  Cow-Keeper
       Bride: Charlotte Savage  30  Widow   Victoria Terrace
                           father: John Hill  Labourer
       Signed: William Neill and Charlotte Savage
       Witnessed by: Henry Webb and Elizabeth Webb

Thus, John Savage, the grandson of William and Ann, is Charlotte's son from her previous marriage. The record for this marriage to John Savage is recorded at St Mary Hanwell on 21 July 1850.

The one-month-old Elizabeth Neill of the 1861 Census return must the daughter of William and Charlotte baptized at St Mary Hanwell (who was actually 2 months old by census night):
       born Jany 26 1861 [bapt.] Feb 24  Elizabeth  William & Charlotte Neill
                                                                                                 Hanwell  Milkman
This corresponds to BMD Birth Index:
       Elizabeth Neill Mar1861 Brentford 3a 79

At St Mary, Hanwell, two brothers of Elizabeth are also baptized:
       William James Neill  born 28 Feb 1864, bapt. 27 Mar
       Harry Walter Neill   born 23 Oct 1865, bapt. 19 Nov

In the five records above, the occupation for William (junior) is given as Coal Merchant, Labourer (three times) and Milkman. As we see below, William James Neill (senior) is described in a probate document as both Dairyman and Coal Merchant. It is possible that the son was carrying on his father's trades, however improbable the combination seems.

Death records for William James Neill:
       BMD Death Index William James Neill Jun1864 Brentford 3a 60

       Burial at St Mary's Hanwell 24 April 1864, aged 68

       National Probate Calendar, England and Wales
              NEILL William James    
              22 November [1864]     Letters of Administration
              (with the Will annexed) of the Personal estate
              and effects of William James Neill late of
              Hanwell in the County of Middlesex Dairy-
              man and Coal Merchant deceased who died
              20 April 1864 at Hanwell aforesaid were granted
              at the Principal Registry to Ann Neill of
              Hanwell aforesaid Widow the Relict the
              Residuary Legatee named in the said Will she
              having been first sworn.
Death records for Ann Neill:
       BMD Death Index Ann Neill Mar1865 Brentford 3a 62

       Burial at St Mary's Hanwell 5 February 1865, aged 73

       National Probate Calendar, England and Wales
              NEILL Ann         
              18 February [1865]    Letters of Administration
              of the Personal estate of Ann
              Neill late of Alpha Cottage Hanwell in the
              County of Middlesex Widow deceased who
              died 30 January 1865 at Alpha Cottage afore-
              said were granted at the Principal Registry
              to Sarah Bucknell of 94 Tyler-street Lambeth
              in the County of Surrey Widow the daughter
              of the said Deceased she having been first sworn.

The daughter Sarah, we have not yet seen. She must be the one baptized at St Mary Hanwell (non-standardized spelling again):
       [Born 1821] May 19  [bapt.] June 4  Sarah  William & Ann  Neale  Hanwell  Milkman

Lambeth St Mary the Less have the following marriage record, dated 12 July 1855:
       Groom: Robert Bucknell  Full Age  Widower  Baker  94 Tyer's Street
                            father: Robert Bucknell (decd)  Farmer
       Bride: Sarah Neill   Full Age  Spinster      94 Tyer's Street
                            father: William Neill  Cow Keeper
       signed: Robert Bucknell and Sarah Neill
       witnessed by: George Neill and Elizabeth Barker

Robert Bucknell (the baker) dies 1862. Sarah remarries the well-named Thomas Barley, Licensed Victualler, as recorded at Newington, St Mary on 29 November 1870.

In addition to the children of William Neill, Cow Keeper, and his wife Ann shown in the census returns, we have the following:
              There is no record of her baptism at St Mary Hanwell, and the parish register
              for St Nicholas Chiswick is not available online.
              Of course, we do know she is a daughter of William Neill Dairy Man from
              her marriage record to Henry Stroud, Hairdresser of Hanwell.
                     Hanwell St Mary 21 July 1845
              BMD Death Index Ann Stroud Sep1895 Romford 4a 231 Age:77
              Charles Naill born 26 January 1822, baptized 3 March
              Married 1. Charlotte Bunce
                     BMD Marriage Index Jun1845 Brentford 3 5 (Charles Neill and Charlotte Bunce)
              Married 2. Louisa Frampton
                     Hanwell St Mary 2 April 1888
              Occupation: Labourer
              BMD Death Index Charles Neill Dec1904 Brentford 3a 40 Age:82
              Eliza Neall born 19 August 1824, baptized 12 September
              Married William Farr (Farm Labourer/Hay Binder)
                     BMD Marriage Jun1846 Brentford 3 7 (William Farr and Eliza Neill)
              BMD Death Eliza Farr Mar1895 Brentford 3a 112 Age:69
              Sarah Neale born 19 May 1826, baptized 4 June
              Married 1. Robert Bucknell (Baker)
                     Lambeth St Mary the Less 12 July 1855
              Married 2. Thomas Barley (Licensed Victualler)
                     Newington St Mary 29 November 1870
              BMD Death Sarah Barley Sep1896 Lambeth 1d 294 Age:70
              William Neill born 28 December 1827, baptized 20 January 1828
              Married Charlotte Hill (widow Savage)
                     Hampstead St Stephen the Martyr 21 April 1860
              Occupation: Labourer (in 1861 Coal Merchant and in 1891 Cow Keeper)
              BMD Death Index William Neill Sep1897 Wandsworth 1d 478 Age:69
              Martha Neill born 2 August 1829, baptized 23 August
              Burial at Hanwell St Mary 18 July 1830 aged 11 months
              George Neill born 5 March 1831, baptized 29 April
              Married Emily Guerrier (widow Colwell)
                     BMD Marriage Mar1858 Westminster St Mary 1a 337
                                   (George Neill and Emily Colwell)
              Occupation: Baker
              Died after 1891 Census
              James Neill born 18 March 1832, baptized 7 April
              Married 1. Ellen Kendrick
                     St Pancras Parish Chapel 17 December 1857
              Married 2. Elizabeth Ligg (widow Smith)
                     Pentonville St Silas 31 January 1878
              Occupation: Railway Porter
              BMD Death Index James Neill Sep1898 Pancras 1b 64 Age:65
              Burial 12 September 1898 St Pancras Parish Chapel
              Edmund Neill born 19 December 1834, baptized 18 January 1835
              Married Mary Ann Emmerton
                     Haggerston All Saints 26 May 1861
              Occupation: Police Constable (1911 Census has Police Railway Pensioner)
              BMD Death Index Edmund Neill Mar1914 Edmonton 3a 634 Age:79
              National Probate Calendar records death on 26 January 1914
       Jane Hannah Fox
              Jane Anna Neill born 20 December 1837, baptized 14 January 1838
              Married Edward William Lewonskei (Blacksmith, and latterly Oil and Colourman)
                     BMD Marriage Index Sep1858 Kensigton 1a 45
                            (Jane Hannah Fox Neill and Edward William Lewonskei)
              BMD Death Index Jane Hannah F Lewonskei Dec1901 West Ham 4a 152 Age:63
                     (Edward W Lewonskei West Ham 4a 144 Age:66

This youngest daughter, named Jane Hannah Fox Neill, suggests the correct maiden name for her mother Ann. In addition, there is a three-year-old Ann Fox Neill, the daughter of James Neill and Ellen (Kendrick) reported in the 1871 Census at 11 Hampden Street, Somers Town, St Pancras. St Pancras parish records have her born 21 January 1868, and baptized 9 March, corresponding to BMD Birth Index Ann Fox Neill Jun1868 Pancras 1b 117.

The marriage record for William Neill and Ann Fox is just down the road from Hanwell at Chiswick St Nicholas:
       William James Neill of this Parish
       and Ann Fox of this Parish
       were married in this Church by Banns...
       ... this Twenty Third Day of
       November in the Year One Thousand Eight Hundred and seventeen
       By me Thos Frere Bowerbank Vicar
       This Marriage was solemnized between us:
              the mark of X William James Neill
              the mark of X Ann Fox
       In the Presence of:
              (signed) John Frayley Parish Clerk
              (signed) Charlotte Harrison

Chiswick St Nicholas
Next, where was Ann Fox born?

Wednesday, May 21, 2014

Henry Stroud Hairdresser of Hanwell

Be Sure Your Hairdresser is Trustworthy!
When I think Victorian hairdressing, I recall the story of Sweeney Todd the Demon Barber of Fleet Street! He dispatches his trusting clients, taking their possessions, while his mistress makes succulent meat pies to dispose of the remains. The terror of the story (and no such person as Sweeney Todd truly existed in Victorian London) lies in the commonplace situation of visiting the hairdresser and being completely at his mercy in the age of the shaving razor.

A previous post describes the war record of my great grandfather Henry Stroud, and documents his siblings and parents, Robert and Charlotte Stroud. In this post we follow Robert Stroud, the building contractor of Barley Hall, Ilford, back in time before his marriage, to document his siblings and parents.

The 1911 England census includes information on length of current marriage, which for Robert and Charlotte Stroud was 28 years, meaning they were married in about 1881. The parish register at Battersea St Peter for 24 December 1882 has:

       Robert Stroud    24  Bachelor  Labourer  173 Ingrave St  Henry Stroud  Hairdresser
       Charlotte Norris 24  Spinster                   173 Ingrave St  George Norris Labourer
       signed by Robert Stroud and Charlotte Norris
       witnessed by Ann Matton and Benjamin Stroud

Above the entry, and in reference to Robert's age, a later vicar had added an anotation:
In entry no. 269, col. 3 for "24" in upper line read "26" corrected on the 11th February 1884 by me Joseph Miles, Vicar in the presence of Robert Stroud and Charlotte Stroud the parties married.

I have not yet found Robert's 1881 census return, but I do have one for 1871, in which a 15-year-old Robert is living with parents Henry Stroud, Hairdresser, and Ann. The household is shown at 11 Gladman's Cottages as follows:
        Henry   Stroud  Head   Mar   48    Hairdresser   Middlesex, Marylebone
        Ann         Do      Wife    Mar  50    Laundress         Do           Hanwell
        Henry      Do      Son    Unm  18    Labourer           Do               Do
        Robert     Do      Son              15        Do                 Do               Do
        Elizabeth Do      Daur            13                              Do               Do

By 1891, Robert was an building contractor, employing workers. As we saw above, in 1882, he gives his occupation as labourer for the marriage certificate, and this occupation is also reported in the 1871 England census. He seems to have struck out on his own, certainly not following his father's occupation of hairdresser.

In 1881, Robert's parents are found at 2 Adelaide Cottages, Boston Road, Hanwell, giving ages 59 and 60, and occupations as Hairdresser and Laundress.

In 1891, they are at 2 Halfacre, Hanwell, just off the High Street. Henry, now reported aged 69, is still a hairdresser, although reported this time as Barber, and Ann, 71, no longer gives an occupation.

Henry's entry in the BMD Death Index must be:
       Henry Stroud Dec1893 Brentford 3a 90 Age:73

However, it is less clear which should be Ann's.
       Ann Stroud Dec1892 Henley 3a 432 Age:72
       Ann Stroud Sep1895 Romford 4a 231 Age:77

The former is consistent with the ages reported in censuses, while the latter is cited by unsourced trees in

Returning to Robert Stroud, in 1861 we find him with his father and siblings living opposite the Middlesex Lunatic Asylum in Norwell. However, Ann is not among them, presumably visiting somewhere. In addition to Henry, Robert and Elizabeth, two older children are still at home in 1861.
       Henry Stroud Head Mar   38 Hair Dresser Middx St Marylebone
       Sarah    do     Daughter   10                        do              do
       William  do     Son           13                        do              do        [new page]
       Henry Stroud   Son           8                       Middx Hanwell
       Robert   do      do             5                         do               do
       Elizabeth do Daur            3                         do               do

Before Robert was born, we can follow the young family back in time to 1851, in Hanwell:
       Henry Stroud   Head   Mar   28   Hair Dresser  Mddx Marylebone
       Ann Stroud      Wife   Mar    30    Do    Do   Wife   do     Hanwell
         do      do        Daur              4                               do         do
       William do       Son                3                               do         do
       Jane    do        Daur              1                                do         do
       Sarah   do         do                1 month                     do         do

The marriage of Henry Stroud and Ann Neill is recorded in the parish register at St Mary's Hanwell on 21 July 1845. Banns are recorded for St Mary's Paddington Green (Henry's home parish?) and St Mary's Hanwell.
       Henry Stroud Full Age Bachelor Hair Dresser  Hanwell  John Stroud    Hair Dresser
       Ann Neill        Full Age Spinster                        Hanwell  William Neill   Dairy Man
       signed by: Henry Stroud and Ann Neill
       witnessed by: Charles Battey Parish Clerk and Elizabeth Dawson

Henry Stroud, hairdresser, can also be found before his marriage in the 1841 England Census. No address is given, although the census book for Acton District 5 begins at "Gospel oak near the township of New Brentford and [terminates] at the High road through the town of Hanwell". There on page 4 (out of 17) we find:
       John Atwell      60   Hairdresser    No[t born in Middlesex]
       Ann      Do       50                          No
       Henery Stroud 18   Prentice Do    Yes

Henry's place of birth on his census returns is always St Marylebone, and his reported age gives a year of birth about 1823. The St Marylebone parish register has the following baptism for 24 March 1822:
       Henry S[on] of     John and Zipporah   Stroud    Servt   [born] 22 Dec 1821

This would mean that the census ages up to 1871 are consistently one less than his real age (and thereafter match it), which is quite possible. Also, the father's occupation is not consistent between Henry's baptism and marriage documents, but this is also also possible. Related to the above baptism is in the same parish for 9 April 1818:
       William S[on] of     James and Zipporah    Stroud   Servt [born]  2 Jany1818

It seems to me likely that the baptisms here are for two brothers, and that on one of them the father's name is not correct; I find it hard to believe that in the same parish there are two Zipporahs married to a Stroud. Leaving open some room for doubt, I tend to accept the first of these baptisms as being for our future hairdresser, and the second being for his brother.

The parish register at Hanwell St Mary, records the following baptisms of the children of Henry and Ann Stroud. Many of the entries had been mis-transcibed in ancestry as "Strond", and , to find them, I had to just read through the register page by page:
       Ann Sarah       
              Born 9 Jun 1846  bapt. 5 July 1846
                     At home for the 1851 Census, but I have no further record of her
       William Henry        
              Born 1 Nov 1847  bapt. 28 Nov 1847
                     At home 1851 and 1861
                     Marries Louisa Harriett Stebbing 25 Dec 1869 Battersea St George Martyr
                     Occupation: Hairdresser
                     Still alive in 1911
              Born 6 Jul 1849    bapt. 29 July 1849
                     At home 1851, with grandparents Neill 1861, but no further record
              Born 3 Mar 1851   bapt. 26 Mar 1851
                     At home 1851 and 1861
                     Servant 1871 to two unmarried Wilshire sisters in Hanwell
                     BMD Marriage Index Mar1874 Brentford 3a 100
                            Sarah Stroud and George Scott
                     Still alive in 1911: Nurse (Maternity)
              Born 27 Jan 1853   bapt. 6 Mar 1853
                     Marries Annie Maria Johnson
                     Marries Fanny Wheeler
                             (surname according to ancestry public member trees)
                     Occupation: Plasterer
                     Death 1905
              Born 15 Mar 1856  bapt. 6 Apr 1856
                     Details in this and the previous post.
              Born 16 Oct 1857   bapt. 6 Dec 1857
                     At home 1861 and 1871
                     Attendant at the Middlesex Lunatic Asylum 1881
                     Marries William Evans, Gentleman's Servant 18 May 1882 at Deptford St Paul
                     BMD Death Jun1890 Brentford 3a 59 Age:32
                     Burial 26 Jun 1890 St Mary's Ealing
              Born 10  Jan 1860  bapt. 4 Mar 1860
                     1871 Lodger with John and Charlotte Wells in Hammersmith
                     1881 Servant (Barman) to Richard Hill (Licensed Victualler) in Marylebone
                     Marries Lydia Bland 4 Jun 1884 at St Marylebone
                     1891 Lodger with Fred Wm Palmer in East Ham
                     Occupation: Driller
                     No further record
Benjamin, I would not have found, but for browsing the St Mary's Hanwell parish register. He may be the Benjamin Stroud who signed as a witness on Robert Stroud's marriage registration, presented at the top of this post.

So, three generations of hairdressers: first John Stroud, according to the marriage registration for Henry Stroud and Ann Neill, second Henry Stroud himself, and thirdly his son, William Henry Stroud. And none of them, a "demon barber" I'm sure! Next up the Neills, and then Foxes and Bunnets.


Thursday, May 15, 2014

The Strouds of Barley Hall

The reality was not nearly so dashing

It's been a while since the last post, and while I have not been recording the information here, I have little by little garnered more family history from many lines. The Biggles stories, written from the 1930s until quite recently, concern the exploits of a heroic aviator. Captain W. E. Johns, the author of the series, was a Royal Flying Corps pilot during World War One, and so some firsthand experience is evident. However, the series was written to entertain adolscent boys with stories of adventurous exploits. They are dated in language, and in their use of national and racial stereotypes, neither of which caught my attention when our elementary school teacher read us some Biggles back in the 1970s. We just looked forward to Friday afternoons.

My previous post for this side of the family was Sailing Three Generations, in which I looked at the lines Parks, Hardman and Hatt. Here I will begin with the Strouds. Today's entry, still on my father's side, is looking to his mother's ancestors. Unity Gwendolyn Stroud was known by many as Una, and to me as "Nan Stuart". Her parents are Henry Stroud and Edith Violet Parks. I never knew the former, but the latter was "Nan-mum". Shortly before she died, she returned various small gifts to those who had given them. Since my father had already died, she returned to me a gift that he had given her.

I begin with the marriage certificate of my great grandparents, for their marriage at St James Chapel, Aldborough Hatch on 28 October 1916 (BMD Marriage Index Dec1916 Romford 4a 975):
     Groom's name:                     Henry Stroud
     Groom's age and condition:  28  Bachelor
     Groom's occupation:             2nd Lieutenant R.F.C.   
                                                   [Royal Flying Corps]
     Groom's residence:                Barley Hall, Little Heath
     Groom's father/occupation:   Robert Stroud Contractor & Builder
     Bride's name:                        Edith Violet Parks
     Bride's age and condition:     23  Spinster
     Bride's residence:                  69 S. Alban's Road, Seven Kings
     Bride's father/occupation:     George William Parks Waterman
     Signed:                                 Henry Stroud/Edith Violet Parks
     Witnesses:                            Arthur Stroud/George William Parks/Dorothy Amy Parks

Arthur Stroud, as we will see, is a brother of Henry, while George William Parks is Edith's father, and Dorothy Amy Parks is her cousin.

Just as for Ardeshir Kapadia and Zoe Young Hanrott, there are three census returns for the family of Robert Parks and Charlotte Norris.

First, the 1891 England Census at 1 Sams Green, Ilford
     Robert Stroud Head  M   35  Sewer Contractor Builder  Middlesex, Hanwell
     Charlotte         Wife   M  33                                             Worcestershire, Dudley
     Robert             Son           7  Scholar                                Surrey, Battersea
     Lottie              Daur          6  Scholar                                Surrey, Battersea
     Benjamin        Son            4                                              Essex, Ilford
     Henry             Son            2                                              Essex, Ilford

Then, the 1901 England Census at Little Heath House, Aldborough Hatch, Ilford, Essex
     Robert Stroud Head  M  45   Contractor   Employer    Middlesex, Homwell [sic]
     Charlotte         Wife  M  43                                           Shropshire, Dudley
     Robert             Son         17                       Worker        Surrey, Battersea
     Lottie              Daur        16                       Worker        Surrey, Battersea
     Benjamin        Son          14                       Worker        Essex, Ilford
     Henry             Son          12                                           Essex, Ilford
     Arthur             Son          9                                             Essex, Ilford
     George            Son          8                                             Essex, Ilford
     Edith               Daur        4                                             Essex, Ilford
     Elizabeth         Daur        1                                             Essex, Ilford
          and servant Louisa Braner

And lastly, the 1911 England Census at Barley Hall, Goodmayes, Ilford, Essex.
     Robert Stroud  Head  55 Married  Builder Brickmaker Farmer  Hanwell, Middlesex
     Charlotte         Wife    53 Married                                               Dudley, Worcestershire
     Benjamin         Son     24 Single    Son assisting in the business
                                                            (Farm Work)                         Ilford, Essex
     Henry              Son     22  Single   Son assisting in the business
                                                            (General Office Work)         Ilford, Essex
     Arthur              Son    19 Single    Son assisting in the business
                                                            (Brickmaking Work)            Ilford, Essex
     George William Son  18 Single    Son assisting in the business
                                                            (Farm Work)                        Ilford, Essex
     Edith              Daughter 14           School                                   Ilford, Essex
     Elizabeth       Daughter  12           School                                   Ilford, Essex
          and two servants plus a servant's wife.

Robert and Charlotte had been married 28 years, had 11 children of which 8 were still alive (with six of those still living at Barley Hall in 1911).

Here is some BMD data and, in some cases, more for the children of Robert and Charlotte:

Robert Benjamin George Stroud
     BMD Birth Index Jun1883 Wandsworth 1d 713
     Baptised at St Peter Battersea 2 September 1883
          (date of birth 5 June 1883)
     BMD Marriage Index Sep1909 Ongar 4a 872 (Florence Stafford)
     1911 census at 66 Cambridge Road, Seven Kings
     BMD Death Index Dec1953 Ilford 5a 339 Age: 70
     National Probate Calendar 20 January 1955
          (date of death 26 December 1953)

Lottie Stroud
     BMD Birth Index Dec1884 Wandsworth 1d 679
     Baptised at St Peter Battersea 26 October 1884
          (date of birth 19 September 1884)
     BMD Marriage Index Dec1908 W Ham 4a 430 (to William Jameson)
     1911 census at Green Lane, 4 Broomhill Market, Goodmayes, Ilford
     BMD Death Index Mar1963 Braintree 4a 572 Age:78 (as Lottie Jameson)
     National Probate Calendar 23 May 1963
          (date of death 3 March 1963)

Benjamin Stroud
     BMD Birth Index Dec1886 Romford 4a 337
     BMD Marriage Index Sep1911 Lambeth 1d 457 (to Alice Maud Turner)
     Married at St Paul Brixton 4 July 1911 to Alice Maud Turner
     BMD Death Index Mar1945 Romford 4a 717 Age:58
     National Probate Calendar 1 August 1952
          (date of death 13 March 1945)

Henry Stroud
     BMD Birth Index Sep1888 Romford 4a 327
     BMD Marriage Index Dec1916 Romford 4a 975 (to Edith Violet Parks)
     BMD Death Index Dec1952 Ilford 5a 470 Age:64
     National Probate Calendar 15 Jan 1955
          (date of death 18 December 1952)
The National Archives have records for 2nd Lieut Henry Stroud Royal Flying Corps WO 339/61990 (not digitized), and Air Ministry records AIR76/488/154 (digitized) have his date of birth as 20 August 1888.

Arthur Stroud
There are several Arthur Strouds born around this time; the one in Romford makes the most sense. The death record is for a Stroud of the right age, but could be one of a few. However, several public trees do have the 9 July 1945 date of death. The BMD Death Index for Ethel Maud Stroud has her age at 33, although, if his wife, I suspect this is a misprint for 53 from the original death certificate.
     BMD Birth Index Sep1891 Romford 4a 379
     BMD Marriage Index Mar1917 Romford 4a 733 (to Ethel M Porter)
     BMD Death Index Sep1945 Stepney 1c 67 Age:54
     National Probate Calendar 22 Jan 1947
          (date of death 9 July 1945 - and Ethel Maud Stroud of same address,
           13 Epsom road, Seven Kings had died 4 July 1945)

George William Stroud
There are not many George William Strouds, and these are the most likely birth and corresponding death records. No obvious candidate for a marriage record without more information.
     BMD Birth Index Mar1893 Romford 4a 419
     BMD Death Index Mar1970 Newham 5e 2204 Age:77
          (date of birth 13 February 1893)

Edith Stroud
     BMD Birth Index Jun1897 Romford 4a 442

Elizabeth Stroud
     BMD Birth Index Dec1899 Romford 4a 521

Searching the BMD Death Index for young Strouds in the Wandsworth and Romford registration districts yields many possibilities for the three children who had died before the 1911 census.

Barley Hall
Barley Hall sounds grand, and it was, with 11 rooms, including the kitchen, but not scullery, lobby, halls or bathroom; plus another 3 rooms in the housekeeper's cottage. Over the twenty years, 1891 to 1911, Ilford grew in population from about 11,000 to 78,000. The bulk of these commuted by train to London, and lived in new suburban housing. The chief developer was Archibald Cameron Corbett, a Liberal M.P., who, in 1911, was created 1st Baron Rowallan. The major contractor was Robert Stroud. Google search results for"Robert Stroud Barley Hall Ilford" indicate that he was a Justice of the Peace for Essex, and a retiring County Councillor in 1913. At his death in 1925, the National Probate Calendar reckons his assets to be worth 55,000 pounds - the measuring worth calculator rates this at between 2.5 and 18 million pounds in today's money!

Henry Stroud died at his house "Rowallan", Little Heath, Chadwell Heath on the 18th December 1952, according to the National Probate Calendar. This is also the address of Barley Hall. Looking at the site of Barley Hall, there is a Strouds Close nearby, and also Rowallan House nursing home, all evidence of the relationship between Corbett, Stroud and the building of Ilford.

Returning to the marriage record for my great grandparents, Henry Stroud's occupation is given as 2nd Lieutenant Royal Flying Corps, this being two years into the Great War. The National Archives hold service records for our Henry Stroud. As well as his name and rank, AIR76/488/154 gives his address as 23 Barley Gdns, Barley Lane, Ilford and the person to be informed of casualty as Mrs. E.V. Stroud.

After extensive, at least time-consuming, training at 2 School of Aeronautics Oxford, Central Flying School, and with reserve squadrons. In October 1916, he was married, and shortly after that my Nan Stuart was conceived. There is a period in February and March 1917 when he was not medically fit for service. Declared "fit GS" (General Service) on 2 April 1917, 2nd Lieutenant Henry Stroud found himself on the Western Front in time for the allied offensive on Arras (9 April to 16 May) in which the Royal Flying Corps was heavily involved. A note next to this service indicates that he flew in BE2e two-seater biplanes, probably in a reconnaissance role, since this was the specialty of 16 Squadron to which he was assigned.

The picture (from wikipedia) shows an intelligence officer briefing a crew of an RE8 prior to a reconnaisance mission, posed perhaps, but more recognizable to Henry Stroud than the Biggles cover!

This time became known Bloody April due to high losses in aircrew. Arriving 18 April, Henry Stroud was likely a replacement pilot. By May 1917, reports, 16 Squadron was re-equipped with the RE8, a slightly more modern airplane. By June, he had been reassigned to 4 Squadron - also flying RE8s - in time for the Battle of Messines (4 to 14 June 1917).

Henry Stroud's service with the Royal Flying Corps came to an abrupt end shortly thereafter, being wounded on 17 June. After several months of medical boards declaring him unfit for service, his record concludes chronologically with the remark that on 21 May 1918, that he "relinquished his Commission on account of ill health caused by wounds and is granted the Hon rank of Lieut".