Thursday, June 4, 2015

The Attorney's Clerk

Framwellgate Bridge, Durham (illustration from George Gilbert, Cathedral Cities of England 1905)])
The previous post ended with a mystery. John Beresford, my step-2xgreat grandfather, was born at the Crossgate Union Workhouse, Durham in 1845 to unwed mother Elizabeth Beresford. On the birth certificate there are places for father's name and father's rank or profession; each of them is left blank. On his marriage certificate there are also places for father's name and father's rank or profession; and they are given as John Beresford deceased, Attorney's Clerk. So, there is a contradiction betwwen these records.

It is understandable that our John Beresford might want to invent a fictitious father to avoid embarrassment. John is a common enough name that the fiction might never be discovered. But why Attorney's Clerk? This is an uncommon occupation, and I wonder why it came into John's mind when he had to choose an occupation for a father he never knew. Possibly he just pulled this occupation out of thin air; it just came to mind. Another possibility is that there was an Attorney's Clerk who he knew, perhaps a man who treated him as a father - although he did, of course, have a step-father, William Fagan. But just maybe, his father really was an Attorney's Clerk named John.

For all their errors, ancient and modern, census records really are quite amazing. I tend to cite them in household units, but the enumerator books contain household upon household, and one can obtain a view of the neighborhood by examining a series of records around the household of particular interest. In the previous post I cited the 1851 enumeration of John, his mother and step-father (as William and Elizabeth Faigan and John Barrowford). However, in reviewing the whole page, the occupation of Attorney's Clerk just jumped out at me! Here is the household in question; it is only three schedules away from the Faigans.

1851 England Census at Framwellgate, Durham:
       Thomas Caldcleugh  Head  Widr 66  Joiner Journeyman  Durham Durham Elvet
       John          Do           Son    U      26  Attorney's Clerk           Do     Framwellgate
       Cathrine    Do           Daur   U      22                                      Do             Do
       Sarah         Do          Niece          11                                      Do              Do

and the schedule next to the Faigans on the other side:
       Isabella Caldcleugh  Head  U     36   Laundress               Durham Framwellgate
       Fredrick     Do           Son           15  Grocers App                  Do           Do
[new page]
       Sarah Caldcleugh     Daur          11  Scholar                     Durham Framwellgate

The Fagans (as other documents attest) and Caldcleughs knew each other as more than neighbors. If you look back at the marriage certificate for William Fagan and Elizabeth Beresford (about 18 months previously, 27 Oct 1849), you may notice that one of the witnesses to the marriage is Cathrine Caldcleugh. I am not sure of the pronunciation, but I suspect it must be something like "Colcluff".

During the next decades the Fagans and Caldcleughs moved apart. By 1861, the Fagans are living at Claypath, Durham, while there are still Caldcleughs at Framwellgate. Frederick Caldcleugh, 26, is a "Cabinet Maker employing 1 boy", with a wife and three children. In the same household, Frederick's uncle John Caldcleugh, 36, is a "Solicitor's Managing Cl[erk]".

In 1871, John Caldcleugh, 46, "Solicitor's Clerk", is still at Framwellgate, now married to Hannah Webster, and with their son, daughter and father-in-law, By 1881, they had moved to Elvet at which time he was still a "Solicitor's Clerk". By 1891, still in Elvet he was County Court Clerk. He died 27 January 1894, a county court clerk, aged 68.

The evidence for paternity is circumstantial. But I don't think that John Beresford's choice of occupation for his father on his marriage certificate arose by chance. John Caldcleugh may have been a father figure in John Beresford's life, and the latter may have remembered his occupation of Attorney's Clerk. But John Beresford must have had a father, and John Caldcleugh must be a person of interest to be ruled in or out.

John Caldcleugh had two children by Hannah Webster. His daughter Mary Isabella (1869-1923) died unmarried. His son Thomas Henry (1866-1958) married Ellen Atkinson (1871-1959). They had two daughters: Ruth, who died in infancy 1912; and Mary (1908-?), who married Cyril Edward Stabler (1903-1965). Cyril and Mary Stabler had a daughter, who is probably still living.

Why do I mention John Caldcleugh's known descendants? In the absence of documentary evidence, it is possible that John Beresford's ancestry might be solved by DNA analysis. As the price of genealogical DNA sequencing comes down we might yet find a genetic link (or else rule one out) between Beresford and Caldcleugh descendants. Alas, as a step-descendant I have none of John Beresford's DNA, although I would gladly coordinate such a project. Contact me if you're interested.

Wednesday, June 3, 2015

The Boy Beresford and His Mother

from Mayhew, London Labour and the London Poor, Vol 2. (1851)

Investigative journalist Henry Mayhew published three volumes of commentary on street labor in mid-Victorian Britain, with interviews of some of the workers. To hear the voice of one London Scavenger (Mayhew renders their accents in his text) try London Labour and the London Poor (1851), pages 224-226. Among the workers, there were those who kept the city clean. Any big city generates refuse. In the nineteenth century, add horse manure to the mix, and the task of keeping the mess under control was considerable. Those with the unenviable occupation of scavenger scraped the streets clean with shovels and brooms, work that was repetitive, unskilled, and with little room for advancement. They worked in gangs, so perhaps one could rise to the position of a foreman of sorts. At least their weekly 12 shillings or so, kept them in cheap lodgings and food.

In this post, see two sets of records, one already established as belonging to John Beresford, and some earlier ones, related to each other, which I believe belong to the same John Beresford. And the Scavenger? Well read on, as move from Mayhew's London to Durham.

John Beresford, my step-2xgreat grandfather, has uncertain origins, but he was certainly from Durham. This post contains some repetition of information previously posted on this blog, but also previously unposted census returns which may provide some of his earlier history, and a marriage to direct future research on his family of origin.

Clearly belonging to John Beresford we have the following: marriage certificate (1867), census returns from 1871, 1881, 1891, 1901, and 1911, and death registration (1912).

BMD Marriage Index
       John Beresford and Mary Ann Kennett Dec 1867 Sunderland 10a 581

GRO Copy
       Marriage Solemnized at the Parish Church in the [...illegible...] of Hendon
       Bishopwearmouth in the County of Durham.
       When Married:                          Oct 2 1867
       Name and Surname:                 John Beresford
                                                         Mary Ann Kennett
       Age:                                          22
       Condition:                                  Bachelor
       Rank or Profession:                   Mariner
                                                         [left blank]
       Residence at time of marriage: 22 Lodge Terrace
                                                        3 Lodge Terrace
       Father's name and surname:    John Beresford
                                                        William Kennett
       Rank or Profession of Father:   Attorney's Clerk
                                                        Coast Guard
       Married in the Parish Church according to the Rites and Ceremonies of the
       Established Church, by Superintendant Registrar Certificate by me,
              Alexr Maclerman Curate
       This Marriage was solemnized between us,
              John Beresford
              Mary Ann Kennett
       in the Presence of us,
              R. W. Gowland
              Mahala Kennett

Census Data
1871 England Census John Beresford in his own household at 11 Magdalene Street, St. Giles, Durham, Durham.
       John Beresford   Head              Mar  25    Porter          Durham City
       Mary Ann do       Wife                Mar  23                       Essex, Shoeburyness
       Ann E       do       daur                         2                        Durham, Sunderland
       Rosetta E  do      daur                       11 mo                      do    , City
       William Kennett   Father-in-law  Mar  52    Labourer     Kent, Monkton
       Ann          do       Mother-in-law Mar  54                        Devonshire, Budleigh
       Rosetta M do      Sister-in-law            13                       Yorks., Kettleness
[Source Citation: Class: RG10; Piece: 4967; Folio: 46; Page: 42; GSU roll: 847430]

1881 England Census John Beresford in his own household at 30 Duke Street, Monkwearmouth, Sunderland, Durham.
       John Beresford   Head  [Mar]  36  Seaman    Durham City
       Mary Ann do       Wife      do    33                   Shoeburyness, Essex
       Annie E    do       Daur             12  Scholar     Durham, Sunderland
       Minnie K  do         do                 6       do             do    , Langlemoor
       Ada M      do         do                4       do              do    , Sunderland
       William A  do       Son                2                        do    , Brandon
       Thomas K do        do                 5 mos                 do    , Hendon
[Source Citation: Class: RG11; Piece: 5005; Folio: 99; Page: 71; GSU roll: 1342205]

Occupational Data
Bullmer’s Directory of North Yorkshire (1890), p.270
       Beresford John, constable, Board of Trade; h 11 Gloucester street [Middlesbrough] 

And also p.265:                
       Board of Trade -- Surveyors’ Office, Cleveland buildings, Cleveland street; Surveyors, Capt. William C. Johnson and Capt. James N. Armit; John Beresford, constable

Census Data
1891 England Census John Beresford in his own household at 11 Gloucester Street, Middlesbrough, Yorkshire.
       John Beresford  Head    M  46  B.T. Tapeholder Slatman    Durham, Durham
       Mary Ann Do      Wife     M  44                                              Essex, Shoeburyness
       Amelia A  Do      Daur     S   19  Cashier                               Durham, Durham
       Minnie K  Do      Daur     S   16  Cashier                                   Do    , Langley Moor
       Ada M      Do      Daur          13                                                 Do     , Sunderland
       William A Do      Son            12  Scholar                                    Do    , Langley Moor
       Thomas K Do     Son            10     Do                                       Do     , Sunderland
       Albert E    Do     Son             5      Do                                    Yorkshire, Middlesbrough
       Adela V    Do      Daur           4      Do                                         Do      ,         Do
       Robert B Hayes  Visitor  S   29  Dramatic Artist                     Ireland
[Source Citation: Class: RG12; Piece: 4009; Folio: 17; Page: 28; GSU roll 6099119]

1901 England Census John Beresford in his own household at 80 Granville Road, Linthorpe, Middlesbrough, Yorkshire                
       John Beresford  Head  M  56  Retired Seaman         Durham, Durham                
       Mary Ann    Do   Wife   M  54                                    Essex, Shoebury.                
       William A    Do   Son     S  22  Clerk Correspondence in Wellington Steel Foundry                                                                                                 Durham, Brandon                
       Thomas K    Do   Son   S  20  Apprentice Mechanical Engineer       
                                                                                               Do   , Sunderland                
       Albert E       Do   Son        15  Apprentice Marine Draughtsman                                                                                                                               Yorks, Middlesbrough                
       Ada D          Do   Daur     14                                           Do   ,      Do
[Source Citation: Class: RG13; Piece: 4581; Folio: 99; Page:35]

1911 England Census John Beresford in his own household at 19 Upton Street, Middlesbrough, Yorkshire                
       John Beresford         Head  66  Married  44  10  8  2 
                                                  Mariner  Rigger Iron Works Blast Furnace  
                                                                    Parish St. Margarets, City of Durham                
       Mary Ann Beresford  Wife  64  
[Source Citation Class: RG:14; Piece: 29259]

In 1911, John and Mary Ann had been married almost 44 years, and the census records that in 1911 eight of their ten children were still alive. The previous census returns enumerate nine children, while a tenth must have been born and died between censuses, thus escaping enumeration. Inspection of the Birth Index reveals Mary Ann K Beresford born 1872 and died 1874, 1 year old. The third quarter of 1874 must have been difficult for them since Rosetta Eveline also died aged 4. The BMD Death Index has Mary Ann K Beresford Sep 1874 Durham 10a 263 age:1 and Rosetta Eveline Beresford Durham 10a 267 age:4, that is, only a few pages apart in the register. I suspect they both died of the same infectious disease within a few days of each other. At the same time, they had a three- and a six-year-old at home.

Here is a list of their children, and their years of birth, death, and spouses' names:
       Ann Elizabeth Beresford           1868-1938             (Joshua Naylor Hemingway)
       Rosetta Eveline Beresford         1870-1874
       Amelia Augusta Beresford         1871-1959             (John "Jack" Tilley)
       Mary Ann K[ennett?] Beresford 1872-1874
       Minnie Kennett Beresford          1874-1956             (unmarried)
       Ada Matilda Beresford               1876-1964             (John William Dalkin)
       William Adolphus Beresford       1879-1965            (Lilian Mabel Edwards)
       Thomas Kennett Beresford         1880-1950            (Delia Meehan)
       Albert Edward Beresford            1885-?                   (Edith Barker)
       Adela Victoria Beresford            1887-1969             (George Cecil Cox)

BMD Death Index John Beresford Jun 1912 Stockton 10a 71 age:67

GRO Copy (as reported by Duncan Brown)
       "JOHN BERESFORD death certificate JUNE QUARTER Stockton 10A 71: 
       died 3 MAY 1912, at 5 The Green, Norton, Stockton, county of Durham, 
       aged 67 years of acute pneumonia syncope. JOHN's occupation was 
       MASTER MARINER MERCHANT SERVICE. Informant was his daughter 
       A.E. HEMINGWAY, present at his death. Her address was 41 Chester road, 

It is easy to see how all the above records are for the same John Beresford. There is the Beresford-Kennett marriage. The in-laws are present for the 1871 census (and earlier censuses confirm that William Kennett of Monkton, Kent was a Coast Guard, and that he and his wife had a daughter Amelia in Shoeburyness), and the next census records are held together by names and places of birth.

From the above documentation, John Beresford would have been born in St. Margaret's, Durham about 1845. And there is a birth registration for one John Berresford at the correct time and place. Others have come across this before me, and I first posted on this two years ago. Subsequent experience of genealogy has served to make this origin all the more plausible to me. The discrepancies in spelling and age are actually insignificant as we will see.

BMD Birth Index John Beresford Jun 1845 Durham 24 104

GRO Copy
       When and where born:          Eighteenth of May 1845
                                                      at the Union Workhouse Crossgate Durham
       Name (if any):                       John                    
       Sex:                                       Boy
       Name and surname of father: [left blank]
       Name, surname and maiden surname of mother:
                                                      Elizabeth Berresford
       Occupation of father:             [left blank]
       Signature, description and residence of informant:
                                                      The mark of Elizabeth x Berresford Mother
                                                      Union Workhouse Crossgate Durham
       When registered:                   Twelfth of June 1845
        Signature of registrar:           Thomas Clamp, Registrar

Census data
Searching the 1861 England census for John Beresford born about 1845 in Durham, I found this one:
1861 England Census John Barresford in the household of William Fagan at Claypath, St. Nicholas, Durham, Durham.
       William Fagan    Head   Mar  47  Scavenger                   Ireland
       Elizabeth Fagan  Wife   Mar  37                                      Durham, Tanfield
       John Barresford  Stepson       15  Painter's Apprentice   City of Durham, St. Margaret's
[Source Citation: Class: RG9; Piece: 3743; Folio: 57; Page: 23; GSU roll: 543180]

In 1851 the same family unit with alternate spelling is found here:
1851 England Census John Barrowford in the household of William Faigan at Framwell Gate, St. Oswald, Durham, Durham.
       William Faigan   Head   Mar  40  Labourer & Mason     London
       Elizth      Do       Wife    Mar 28                                       Durham, Tanfield
       John Barrowford                     5  Scholar                              Do    , St Margrets
[Source Citation: Class: HO107; Piece: 2390; Folio: 195; Page: 25; GSU roll: 87068]

There is also a marriage index entry 1849 for Elizabeth Beresford and William Fagan.
       BMD Marriage Index Dec 1849 Durham 24 120

GRO Copy
       Marriage Solemnized at the Register Office in Durham in the County of Durham.
       When Married:                          Oct 27 1849
       Name and Surname:                 William Fagan
                                                         Elizabeth Beresford
       Age:                                           36
       Condition:                                  Bachelor
       Rank or Profession:                   Labourer
                                                         [left blank]
       Residence at time of marriage: Framwell Gate Durham
                                                        No 50 Framwell Gate Durham
       Father's name and surname:    James Fagan
                                                        Stephen Beresford
       Rank or Profession of Father:   Labourer
       Married in the Register Office by Superintendant Registrar Certificate by me,
       This Marriage was solemnized between us,
              X the mark of William Fagan
              X the mark of Elizabeth Beresford
       in the Presence of us,
              Cathrine Caldcleugh
              Thomas Burns

William and Elizabeth are still alive to be enumerated in the 1871 England Census at Claypath, St. Nicholas, Durham, Durham:
       William Fagan     Head   Mar  70  Scavenger       Ireland, Westmeath
       Elizabeth  Fagan Wife    Mar  49                          Durham, Tanfield

After this, I do not have further records for Elizabeth, but it would appear from the Death Index that William Fagan died in 1875, based on his name, age and location.
       BMD Death Index William Fagan Dec1875 Durham 10a 216 age:70

It's possible that a marriage between Elizabeth Fagan and John Taylor in Durham Sep 1876 is hers.

The "London" birthplace for William Faigan of the 1851 census is probably incorrect, and Westmeath, Ireland correct. His year of birth varies between 1800 and 1814, his age inflating toward the end of his life. With a much younger wife, he may have deliberately underplayed his age, so perhaps 1801-1805 is more realistic. For two censuses he worked as a Scavenger in Durham, which was presumably his steady occupation in the 1860s.

There are spelling errors/variants, but there is enough consistency in the information to see these earlier (1845-1861) documents (and the 1871 census for William and Elizabeth) as belonging to the same family. The sequence of events shows that Elizabeth Beresford gave birth to a John out of wedlock. She later married William Fagan, but the boy retained his last name. John's surname has been rendered: Berresford (1845 birth certificate), Beresford (his mother's 1849 marriage certificate), Barrowford (1851 census), and Barresford (1861 census).

I am also sure that these documents describe the same John Beresford as the later ones. The following tables show the consistency for place of birth and date of birth for the documents. First, place of birth:
       1845 Birth Certificate: Crossgate Union Workhouse
                               [in St. Margaret's, Durham]
       1851 Census:  Durham, St, Margrets
       1861 Census:  Durham, St. Margaret's
       1871 Census:  Durham City
       1881 Census:  Durham City
       1891 Census:  Durham, Durham
       1901 Census:  Durham, Durham
       1911 Census:  Parish of St. Margaret's City of Durham

The places of birth for these documents are all consistent at the city level, plus the place of birth given on the 1911 census matches the first three documents down to the parish level.

Next, age:
       1845 Birth Certificate gives date of birth 18 May 1845
       1851 Census on 30 Mar 1851     age given: 5     should be: 5
       1861 Census on 7 Apr 1861        age given: 15   should be: 15
       Marriage Certificate 2 Oct 1867   age given: 22   should be 22
       1871 Census on 2 Apr 1871        age given: 25   should be 25
       1881 Census on 3 Apr 1881        age given: 36   should be: 35
       1891 Census on 5 Apr 1891       age given: 46    should be: 45
       1901 Census on 31 March 1901 age given: 56   should be: 55
       1911 Census on 2 Apr 1911       age given: 66   should be: 65
       Death Registration 3 May 1912   age given: 67   should be: 66

John Beresford appears to gain an extra year between 1871 and 1881, Note his 1867 marriage and 1871 census records both match the putative prior records. A similar exercise with respect to his wife Mary Ann Kennett Beresford shows that she gains an extra year between 1881 and 1891.

I am convinced by the consistency among the documents that they all belong to the same person. If I'm wrong and the first three records belong to a different John Beresford/ Berresford/ Barresford/ Barrowford then he left no other documentation after 1861. He may have died unrecorded in further BMD or census documents (for example, by emigration). It would, of course, be an extraordinary coincidence that two John Ber(r)esfords were born at about the same time and place. In addition, it would be harder to explain the absence of documents prior to 1867 for our John Beresford. Over the last couple of years I must have searched for over a thousand post-1837 civil birth records and can recall only a couple of times being unable to find one. I have not given up on the possibility of finding irrefutable evidence connecting our John Beresford to the Fagans - William's death registration may be one place to look, or an independent source on our John Beresford's birthday. However, I do believe the evidence is strong enough already.

Stephen Beresford, Elizabeth's father, would be my step-4xgreat grandfather, and I'll have a little to say about him in another post. But there is a mystery to be solved. On his birth certificate, John Beresford has no father listed. On his marriage certificate John (presumably) gives his father as John Beresford, Attorney's Clerk. Now, I can understand that John would make up a father's name and occupation to avoid embarrassment. Why not Mariner or Labourer or Coalminer, an occupation common to the region? Attorney's Clerk sounds rather unusual and specific for a fictitious father. But I have a person of interest. And he is the topic of the next post.

Tuesday, June 2, 2015

Beneficiaries: the marriages of Sarah Chapman and William Hughes

"Harbour and Dock, West Hartlepool in 1847" by Sketched by Thomas Thorpe and engraved by W. Monkhouse - Tomlinson, William Weaver, 1858-1916 (1915) The North Eastern Railway; its rise and development, p. 485. 

While this post is last in a series with the John Chapman's Will, it also follows-up from and updates Hugheses Crossing the Tees. Thanks are especially due to Clifford Graham who directed me to William's third marriage, which led me to find his second, and Susan who showed me where to find evidence for Sarah's first marriage.

Divorce and remarriage has been relatively common for several decades now. Genealogically, this can result in large half- and step- sibling groups. I have, for example, one sibling, three half-siblings and two step-siblings. In the nineteenth century, similar blended families arose frequently from remarriage of the surviving spouse after bereavement. As we will see, the children of William Hughes (by his first and third wives) and of Sarah Chapman (by her two husbands) have birth years from 1807 to 1865.

But first, to recapitulate John Chapman's will. When researching William's wife, Sarah, earlier this year, I had no firm knowledge of her maiden name. I had been able to reconstruct their family, and among their children I saw Mary Davison Hughes and Chapman Hughes. Both Davison and Chapman look to me like surnames passed down to preserve them, and on various public trees on I saw that both were proposed as names for Sarah.

However, I saw no documentation on public member trees, and it was Susan who kindly explained what the documentation was for Sarah's marriages, and where to find it. Sarah's maiden name was Chapman, and as soon as I added that to my tree on, I was directed by search engine to a probate record for one John Chapman. The will listed most of his children, including Mrs. Sarah Hughes. She was one of five beneficiaries, and received her equal fifth share of the value of her father's estate, less £10 which she owed him. Her husband William Hughes, Baker of Middlesbrough was one of three executors, each of them a son-in-law of John Chapman. John had died in 1845, but the estate was still being administered in 1873. By then, William Hughes and Francis Bulmer had died (1870 and 1850 respectively), while the remaining executor John Lynn was 77 (he was to live to 1879), and was likely only too happy to relinquish his trusteeship to William Hughes, junior, Innkeeper of Middlesbrough.

Here are the lives of Sarah Chapman and William Hughes from BMD records.
(dro =

Sarah Chapman baptized 1789 (
                  Born in Greatham, Durham, 15 Jul 1789; Baptized 24 Jul 1789;
                  parents: John Chapman and Mary

William Hughes baptized 1798 (dro transcript)
                  St. Thomas' Stockton on Tees, 8 Apr 1798, William Hughes, born
                  22 Jan 1798, 2nd son of Ellis Hughes (weaver, Native of Denbigh,
                  North Wales) by his wife Mary Sigsworth (native of this parish)

Sarah Chapman married 1807 William Davison (dro transcript)
                  St Hilda's Hartlepool 16 Mar 1807 William Davison (bachelor), of this
                  parish married Sarah Chapman (spinster), of Stockton on Tees; Witnesses:
                  Robert Shadforth, George Corps, James Horsley
       Child: Mary Davison 1807-1822 (dro index search)
                  1807 baptism Hartlepool
                  1822 burial Hartlepool, age 14
       Child: Ann Davison 1809-1816 (dro index search)
                  1809 baptism Hartlepool
                  1816 burial Hartlepool, age 6
       Child: John Davison 1811 (dro transcript) - he is the John Hughes I see on the
                  1841 census.
                  St Hilda's Hartlepool 19 Jan 1812 John Davison, born 5 Nov 1811, 1st son
                  of William Davison (fisherman) by his wife Sarah Chapman (daughter of
                  John Chapman, Bread-baker & Mary Copse)
       Child: Sarah Davison 1814 (dro transcript)
                  St Hilda's Hartlepool 8 May 1814 Sarah Davison, posthumous daughter of
                  William Davison (fisherman, drowned) & Sarah Chapman (a widow)

William Davison died 1813 (dro transcript) - Sarah's first husband, when she was about a month pregnant with Elizabeth. In 1814, both John and Robert Davison, William's brothers, were drowned and buried at St Hilda's Hartlepool.
                  Burial St. Hilda's Hartlepool 6 Sep 1813 William Davison, of Hartlepool,
                  age 29, drowned

Sarah Davison married 1816 William Hughes (dro transcript)
                  St. Hilda's Hartlepool, 22 Dec 1816 William Heughs (bread-baker) married
                  Sarah Davison; Witnesses: Michael Chapman, John Mowbray, John Fletcher
       Child: Ann Hughes 1817 (dro index search) - her half-sister Ann Davison had died
                  the previous year.
                  1817 baptism Hartlepool Sarah Heughs
       Child: William Hughes 1819 (dro index search)
                  1819 baptism Hartlepool William Heughs
       Child: Jane Hughes 1821 (dro transcript) - my 3xgreat grandmother
                  St. Hilda's Hartlepool, 18 Mar 1821 Jane Heughs, daughter of William
                  Heughs (bread baker) & Sarah Davison
       Child: Chapman Hughes 1823 (dro transcript)
                  St. Hilda's Hartlepool, 10 Oct 1824 Chapman Heughes, child of William
                  Heughes (bread baker) & Sarah Davison-Chapman
       Child: Mary Davison Hughes 1824 (dro index search) - her half-sister Mary Davison
                  had died two years previously.
                  1824 baptism Hartlepool Mary Davison Heughes
       Child: Elizabeth Hughes 1826 (dro transcript)
                  St. Thomas' Stockton on Tees 1 Jan 1827 Elizabeth Hughes, of Unicorn
                  Yard 6th [sic] daughter of William (bread-baker) & Sarah Hughes
       Child: Hannah Eliza Hughes 1828 (dro transcript)
                  St Thomas' Stockton on Tees 31 Aug 1828 Hannah Eliza Hughes, of
                  Unicorn Yard, 5th daughter of William (bread baker) & Sarah Hughes.
       Child: George Hughes 1831-1831 (
                  baptism 21 Aug 1831 St. Thomas' Stockton on Tees
                  burial 9 Oct 1831 St. Thomas' Stockton on Tees age 2 [probably months]
       Child: Arabella Hughes 1834 (computed from census ages)

Sarah Hughes died 1850 - alive in 1841, but William is a widower in 1851. In that decade, there are only two BMD Death Index entries for Sarah Hughes in Stockton registration district. Both of them in the last half of 1850.

William Hughes married 1851 Isabella Allen, widow, daughter of John Bell
       BMD Marriage Index Jun1851 Stockton 24 267

       GRO Marriage Certificate
              23 Apr 1851, at the Parish Church in Stockton on Tees by License
              Groom: William Hughes  Full Age  Widower  Grocer
                    father: Ellis Hughes  Canvas Weaver
              Bride: Isabella Allen  Full  Age  Widower
                    father: John Bell  Coal Owner
              Signed: Wm Hughes and Isabella Allen
              Witnesses: William Sugget and Henry May

Isabella Hughes died 1854, presumably since this is the only Isabella Hughes to die between 1851 and 1860, the date of William's next marriage.
       BMD Death Index Sep 1854 Stockton 10a 16

William Hughes married 1860 Isabella Gordon, spinster, daughter of James Gordon
       BMD Marriage Index Jun 1860 Stockton 10a 61

       GRO Marriage Certificate
              3 Apr 1860 at the Parish Church in Middlesbro' by License
              Groom: William Hughes  Full Age  Widower  Grocer
                    father: Ellice Hughes  Manufacturer
              Bride: Isabella Gordon  Full  Age  Spinster
                    father: James Gordon  Pitman
              Signed: William Hughes his X mark and Isabella Gordon her X mark
              Witnesses: Wm Sterzel and Mary Ann Easter her X mark

Interestingly, William makes his mark here, whereas he had signed in 1851. This was nearly nine years later, so perhaps his eyesight or the steadiness of his hand prevented him from signing. However, he does sign for his daughter's birth certificate in 1865, so perhaps he didn't want to upstage his wife..

       Child: Amelia Hughes 1861
                  BMD Birth Index Sep 1861 Stockton 10a 36
                  Baptized 22 Aug 1861 Middlesbrough parents William and Isabella
       Child: Henrietta Hughes 1865
                  BMD Birth Index Dec 1865 Stockton 10a 102
                  GRO Birth Certificate
                         Ninth November 1865 Mandale Lane Thornaby
                         Henrietta  Girl
                         William Hughes
                         Isabella Hughes formerly Gordon
                         Retired Grocer
                         Signed: Wm Hughes Father Mandale Lane Thornaby
                         Sixth December 1865

William Hughes died 1870, presumably, since in the following index record we have correct age and place. By 1871 Isabella is a widow.
       BMD Death Index Sep 1870 Stockton 10a 659 age:73

1871 Census at Bon Lea Terrace, Thornaby, Yorkshire
       Isabella Hughes Head W 35  Retired Grocer's Widow  Durham, Crowtree nr. Durham
       Amelia       do     Daur        9  Scholar                            Yorkshire, Middlesbro
       Henrietta    do    Daur        5     do                                        do      Thornaby

Isabella Hughes died 1880.
       BMD Death Index Mar1880 Middlesbrough 9d 405 age:45

While not all of these 15 children of William Hughes and Sarah Chapman survived to have children of their own, there must be scores of cousins descended from these two.

Next up, more on the origins of John Beresford, my step-father's great grandfather.