Having reconstructed the family of Joseph Strong, "Master, Steem Boat" of the 1851 England census (also here), I turn now to his wife Jane. These are my 3xgreat grandparents. Her family's migration correlates with the building of the Stockton and Darlington Railway.
Jane's maiden name Hughes is attested in the birth certificate for Hannah Strong, their daughter, when the family lived on Commercial Street, Middlesbrough. Hannah was born 31 March 1851, the census being taken on the night of the 30th. She would have been less than a day old, and is not noted on the census form. And the name Hughes is also given on the Scottish birth records for Robert Strong (1856) - although a likely clerical error has her first name as Susannah - and, also in Greenock, William Strong - mother given as Jane Hughes.
Jane Hughes and Joseph Strong are married in West Acklam, the parish church for Middlesbrough at the time, 25 April 1837. England Select Marriages 1538-1973 gives no more, and it may be useful to inspect the register entry for further information on Joseph and Jane.
In the meantime, I note that, from her census returns, Jane was born in Hartlepool, Durham about 1821. Also, inspecting the 1841 England Census for Joseph and Jane Strong, the family immediately preceding the couple are Hugheses, being the household of William Hughes, Baker, and his wife Sarah on Durham Street, Middlesbrough.
The reconstruction of Jane's family rests on the last name of her neighbors in 1841 sharing her last name on the West Acklam marriage record with Joseph Strong. Hughes is not an uncommon name. If the proximity of these two households is merely a coincidence, then the following doesn't prove a connection, although it does add a common Hartlepool, Durham origin for Jane and her supposed siblings. Here are the two households:
William Hughes 40 Baker N[ot born in Yorkshire]
Sarah Hughes 50 N
John Hughes 25 Baker N
Mary Hughes 15 N
Chapman Hughes 15 Ap Joiner N
Elizabeth Hughes 15 N
Hannah Hughes 12 N
Arabella Hughes 9 Y[es, born in Yorkshire]
Joseph Strong 30 M Mariner N
Jane Strong 20 N
Joseph Bothwick 20 Ship's Carpenter N
Ann Bothwick 20 N
(Source Citation: Class: HO107; Piece: 1258; Book: 5; Civil Parish: Middlesbrough; County: Yorkshire; Enumeration District: 3; Folio: 24; Page: 42; Line: 23; GSU roll: 464234.)
And still on Durham Street in 1851:
William Hughes Head Widr 53 Baker & Grocer Durham Stockton
Eleazer [sic] Hughes Daur U 22 Durham Stockton
George Sednorth Serv U 27 Baker Journ Durham Stockton
(Source Citation: Class: HO107; Piece: 2383; Folio: 262; Page: 18; GSU roll: 87061.)
While I can find no more on John Hughes of the 1841 census, I have followed each of the others.
England, Select Births and Christenings 1538-1975 has the following baptisms recorded at St Thomas Stockton, Durham of children with parents William and Sarah Hughes:
Elizabeth Hughes 1 January 1827
Hannah Eliza Hughes 31 August 1828
George Hughes 21 August 1831
Of these, I have two transcripts from durhamrecordsonline.com, confirming them as
children of William Hughes, baker and his wife Sarah:
1 Jan 1827 Elizabeth Hughes, of Unicorn Yard, 6th daughter of William
(bread baker) & Sarah Hughes
Hannah Eliza baptized in 1828 is recorded as 5th, so at least one of these must be in error. My reconstruction of the family would make Elizabeth the 4th.
31 Aug 1828 Hannah Eliza Hughes, of Unicorn Yard, 5th daughter of
William (bread baker) & Sarah Hughes
Pigott's Directory for 1828-29 has Baker Wm. Hughes Unicorn Yard. In its description of Stockon the directory notes:
In 1821 the entire parish of Stockton contained 5,184 inhabitants, and the
township 5,006 of that number, being an increase of about 1,000 persons
in twenty years, and it is estimated that the population has very considerably
augmented since the last census.
As we will see, this reconstruction of William's family suggests that his family was part of this reported population increase in Piggot's Directory, having arrived there from Hartlepool about 1825. These three baptisms would represent the “middle children”, born in Stockton. The year 1825 saw the opening of the Stockton and Darlington Railway to haul coal by steam locomotive to Stockton; initially passengers used coaches hauled by horses along the track. The railway was extended across the Tees to Middlesbrough by the end of 1830, and the Hugheses followed some time between 1831 and 1834 as the newly established town grew.
That the family moved from Stockton to Middlesbrough is supported by William Hughes, occupation Baker, wife Sarah, of the 1841 census and William Hughes, Baker, wife Sarah of the baptisms in Stockton. The move from Hartlepool is attested by following the census returns of several William and Elizabeth Hughes's children with place of birth given as Hartlepool.
The Elizabeth of the above baptism is consistent with the Elizabeth of the 1841 census, while the Hannah Eliza of the baptism might be both the Hannah of the 1841 census and the Eleazer of the 1851, and perhaps the latter spelling gives an indication of how they pronounced her name. I lose Hannah Eliza after the 1851 census. I have no other record of George of the baptism, who would have been 10 by the 1841 census, and may have died before then. However, Elizabeth does show up in the 1851 census, and I have been able to follow her family through 1871.
The 1851 England Census has the following neighboring households on Durham Street, Middlesbrough (just 7 households from his father, William the baker, and sister Eleazer):
William Hughes Head Mar 32 Engineman […] Durham Hartlepool
Johannes Hughes Wife Mar 36 Yorkshire Harlsey
Sarah Hughes Daur U 10 Scholar Durham Stockton
William Hughes Son 9 Scholar Durham Stockton
Ann Hughes Daur 8 Durham Stockton
Harrison Son 6 Scholar Yorks Middlesbrough
Mary J Hughes Daur U 2 Scholar Yorks Middlesbrough
Johannah Hughes Son 6m Yorks Middlesbrough
The next house is uninhabited, and the house after that has:
Elizabeth Brown Head Mar 24 Sailor’s Wife Durham Stockton
Sarah Brown Daur 3 Yorks Middlesbrough
Mary Brown Daur 1m Yorks Middlesbrough
Mary Lynas Visitor 28 Sailor’s Wife Durham Hartlepool
William Lynas Son 4 Yorks Middlesbrough
Arabella Lynas Daur 18 Yorks Middlesbrough
(Source Citation: Class: HO107; Piece: 2383; Folio: 263; Pages: 2021; GSU roll: 87061).
The first household is that resulting from the marriage of William Hughes and Johanna Harrison. England, Select Marriages 1538-1973 records the following marriage on 3 Aug 1839 at West Acklam:
The corresponding BMD Marriage Index has:
William Hughes Sep1839 Stockton 24 142 (to Joanna Harrison).
Also, I draw attention to William's place of birth, Hartlepool. Jane Strong (nee Hughes), whom I hypothesize to be his sister, gives the same birthplace in her 1851 census return. William has not yet been connected with William the baker, but his neighbors are clearly daughters of William Hughes, the baker of the 1841 and 1851 censuses as we see now.
The next inhabited household is that of Thomas and Elizabeth (nee Hughes) Brown. By the time of the following census, they even have a child named Arabella. England, Select Marriages 1538-1973 records the following marriage on 6 January 1846 in Middlesbrough:
Elizabeth Hughes (Age:20; father: William Hughes)
Thomas Brown (Father: James Brown)
Visiting with Elizabeth Brown (nee Hughes) in the 1851 Census is Mary Lynas, who, as we shall see, turns out to be Elizabeth’s sister. Note Mary's birthplace of Hartlepool, Durham. England, Select Marriages 1538-1973 records the following marriage on 21 November 1844 in Middlesbrough:
Mary Davison Hughes (Father: William Hughes)
Thomas Lynas (Father: Ralph Lynas)
The Arabella Lynas is most likely Arabella Hughes (daughter of William, the Baker, and Sarah, his wife) who the enumerator has confused as Mary’s daughter.
England and Wales Civil Divorce Records for 1863 document the dissolution of the Lynas marriage. The allegation was that Mary committed adultery on numerous occasions with one Joseph Ranson (who, as we shall see, she later married). Some of these occasions occurred at the Hope Inn in Hartlepool, where we find them in the 1861 England Census, recorded as husband and wife, even though this was before the divorce was even filed.
Joseph Ranson Head Mar 47 Victualler Durham Shiney Row
Mary Ranson Wife Mar 37 Durham Hartlepool
Thomas Applegarth Boarder Mar 31 Joiner Durham Bishopaukland
Ara Applegarth Boarder (Wife) 27 York Middlesbro
Thomas Applegarth Boarder 1 Durham West Hartlepool
Pemelia Wood Serv Un 18 Domestic Servant York Leeds
(Source Citation: Class: RG 9; Piece: 3702; Folio: 50; Page: 2; GSU roll: 543174).
The BMD Marriage Index has the following reference to Mary's remarriage:
Mary Davison Lynas Dec1872 Stockton 10a 215 (to Joseph Ranson)
The BMD Death Index has:
Mary Davison Ranson Dec1881 Guisborough 9d 339 Age: 58
Ara Applegarth is Arabella Hughes. England, Select Marriages 1538-1975 records the marriage on 31 Dec 1855 in Middlesbrough of Arrabella Hughes (father: William Hughes) and Thomas Applegarth (father: Robert Applegarth). This corresponds to BMD Marriage Index
Arabella Hughes Dec1855 Stockton 10a 100 (to Thomas Applegarth)
The 1871 Census has the family on Brentwall Street, Middlesbrough (Source Citation: Class: RG10; Piece: 4893; Folio: 26; Page: 46; GSU roll: 848006).
The BMD Death Index has Arabella Applegarth Sep1874 Stockton 10a 40 Age:39.
Returning to the names on the 1841 Durham Street census, England, Select Marriages 1538-1975 records the marriage on 24 April 1845 in Middlesbrough:
Chapman Hughes (father: William Hughes)
Frances Calvert (father: John Calvert)
This corresponds to BMD Marriage Index
Chapman Hughes Jun1845 Stockton 24 229 (to Frances Calvert).
The 1851 England census has Chapman and Frances Hughes on Durham Street where his occupation is Butcher and birthplace Hartlepool, Durham (Source Citation: Class: HO107; Piece: 2383; Folio: 261; Page: 17; GSU roll: 87061). By 1861, they are in West Hartlepool, and he is a Joiner, as he had been apprenticed according to the 1841 census (Source Citation: Class: RG 9; Piece: 3702; Folio: 54; Page: 9; GSU roll: 543174).
The BMD Death Index has:
Chapman Hughes Dec1865 Hartlepool 10a 80.
Natl Prob Cal records the death of Chapman Hughes Joiner on 11 November 1865, probate 13 Jun 1866 to Frances Hughes his widow.
There is one more sibling of Jane Hughes to recover. In the 1841 England Census, Joseph and Jane Strong are living with Thomas and Ann Bothwick. These would be the couple recorded in England, Select Marriages 1538-1973, married in West Acklam 9 June 1838:
Anne Hughes and Joseph Bothwick.
This corresponds to BMD Marriage Index:
Anne Hughes Jun1838 Stockton 24 171 (to Joseph Bothwick)
Which certificate looks worth the purchase, since it would confirm the identity of Anne's father as William Hughes, Baker, and thus link the whole reconstructed family, which currently I hypothesize as:
William Hughes born 1798 Stockton
Sarah ? born 1787‐1791
Children (with approximate years of birth, place of birth and husband's last names):
John 1812‐1816 no place given
William 1818 Hartlepool
Jane 1820 Hartlepool (Strong)
Anne 1821 Hartlepool (Bothwick)
Mary Davison 1823 Hartlepool (Lynas, then Ranson)
Chapman 1824 Hartlepool
Elizabeth 1826 Stockton (Brown)
Hannah Eliza 1828 Stockton
George 1831 Stockton
Arabella 1834 Middlesbrough (Applegarth)
Sarah is the mother of the three born in Stockton, and, presumably, Arabella, but until we find baptisms for the children born in Hartlepool, We cannot rule out the possibility of a previous marriage.