Friday, January 23, 2015

Hugheses Crossing the Tees

Having reconstructed the family of Joseph Strong, "Master, Steem Boat" of the 1851 England census (also here), I turn now to his wife Jane. These are my 3xgreat grandparents. Her family's migration correlates with the building of the Stockton and Darlington Railway.

Jane's maiden name Hughes is attested in the birth certificate for Hannah Strong, their daughter, when the family lived on Commercial Street, Middlesbrough. Hannah was born 31 March 1851, the census being taken on the night of the 30th. She would have been less than a day old, and is not noted on the census form. And the name Hughes is also given on the Scottish birth records for Robert Strong (1856) - although a likely clerical error has her first name as Susannah - and, also in Greenock, William Strong - mother given as Jane Hughes.

Jane Hughes and Joseph Strong are married in West Acklam, the parish church for Middlesbrough at the time, 25 April 1837. England Select Marriages 1538-1973 gives no more, and it may be useful to inspect the register entry for further information on Joseph and Jane.

In the meantime, I note that, from her census returns, Jane was born in Hartlepool, Durham about 1821. Also, inspecting the 1841 England Census for Joseph and Jane Strong, the family immediately preceding the couple are Hugheses, being the household of William Hughes, Baker, and his wife Sarah on Durham Street, Middlesbrough.

The reconstruction of Jane's family rests on the last name of her neighbors in 1841 sharing her last name on the West Acklam marriage record with Joseph Strong. Hughes is not an uncommon name. If the proximity of these two households is merely a coincidence, then the following doesn't prove a connection, although it does add a common Hartlepool, Durham origin for Jane and her supposed siblings. Here are the two households:

       William Hughes     40    Baker               N[ot born in Yorkshire]
       Sarah Hughes        50                              N
       John Hughes          25    Baker                N
       Mary Hughes        15                              N
       Chapman Hughes  15   Ap Joiner           N
       Elizabeth Hughes 15                               N
       Hannah Hughes    12                              N
       Arabella Hughes    9                               Y[es, born in Yorkshire]

New household:
       Joseph Strong        30  M Mariner           N
       Jane Strong            20                              N
       Joseph Bothwick   20  Ship's Carpenter  N
       Ann Bothwick       20                              N
(Source Citation: Class: HO107; Piece: 1258; Book: 5; Civil Parish: Middlesbrough; County: Yorkshire; Enumeration District: 3; Folio: 24; Page: 42; Line: 23; GSU roll: 464234.)

And still on Durham Street in 1851:
       William Hughes         Head Widr 53  Baker & Grocer  Durham Stockton
       Eleazer [sic] Hughes  Daur   U     22                             Durham Stockton
       George Sednorth        Serv    U     27  Baker Journ        Durham Stockton
(Source Citation: Class: HO107; Piece: 2383; Folio: 262; Page: 18; GSU roll: 87061.)

While I can find no more on John Hughes of the 1841 census, I have followed each of the others.

England, Select Births and Christenings 1538-1975 has the following baptisms recorded at St Thomas Stockton, Durham of children with parents William and Sarah Hughes:
       Elizabeth Hughes 1 January 1827
       Hannah Eliza Hughes 31 August 1828
       George Hughes 21 August 1831

Of these, I have two transcripts from, confirming them as
children of William Hughes, baker and his wife Sarah:
       1 Jan 1827 Elizabeth Hughes, of Unicorn Yard, 6th daughter of William
       (bread baker) & Sarah Hughes

Hannah Eliza baptized in 1828 is recorded as 5th, so at least one of these must be in error. My reconstruction of the family would make Elizabeth the 4th.
       31 Aug 1828 Hannah Eliza Hughes, of Unicorn Yard, 5th daughter of
       William (bread baker) & Sarah Hughes

Pigott's Directory for 1828-29 has Baker Wm. Hughes Unicorn Yard. In its description of Stockon the directory notes:
       In 1821 the entire parish of Stockton contained 5,184 inhabitants, and the
       township 5,006 of that number, being an increase of about 1,000 persons
       in twenty years, and it is estimated that the population has very considerably
       augmented since the last census.

As we will see, this reconstruction of William's family suggests that his family was part of this reported population increase in Piggot's Directory, having arrived there from Hartlepool about 1825. These three baptisms would represent the “middle children”, born in Stockton. The year 1825 saw the opening of the Stockton and Darlington Railway to haul coal by steam locomotive to Stockton; initially passengers used coaches hauled by horses along the track. The railway was extended across the Tees to Middlesbrough by the end of 1830, and the Hugheses followed some time between 1831 and 1834 as the newly established town grew.

That the family moved from Stockton to Middlesbrough is supported by William Hughes, occupation Baker, wife Sarah, of the 1841 census and William Hughes, Baker, wife Sarah of the baptisms in Stockton. The move from Hartlepool is attested by following the census returns of several William and Elizabeth Hughes's children with place of birth given as Hartlepool.

The Elizabeth of the above baptism is consistent with the Elizabeth of the 1841 census, while the Hannah Eliza of the baptism might be both the Hannah of the 1841 census and the Eleazer of the 1851, and perhaps the latter spelling gives an indication of how they pronounced her name. I lose Hannah Eliza after the 1851 census. I have no other record of George of the baptism, who would have been 10 by the 1841 census, and may have died before then. However, Elizabeth does show up in the 1851 census, and I have been able to follow her family through 1871.

The 1851 England Census has the following neighboring households on Durham Street, Middlesbrough (just 7 households from his father, William the baker, and sister Eleazer):
       William Hughes     Head  Mar  32 Engineman […]  Durham Hartlepool
       Johannes Hughes   Wife   Mar  36                             Yorkshire Harlsey
       Sarah Hughes         Daur   U     10 Scholar                Durham Stockton
       William Hughes     Son               9 Scholar                Durham Stockton
       Ann Hughes           Daur             8                             Durham Stockton
       Harrison                 Son               6 Scholar                Yorks Middlesbrough
       Mary J Hughes      Daur    U      2 Scholar                 Yorks Middlesbrough
       Johannah Hughes  Son               6m                           Yorks Middlesbrough

The next house is uninhabited, and the house after that has:
       Elizabeth Brown  Head    Mar  24  Sailor’s Wife      Durham Stockton
       Sarah Brown        Daur               3                             Yorks Middlesbrough
       Mary Brown         Daur              1m                          Yorks Middlesbrough
       Mary Lynas         Visitor           28  Sailor’s Wife     Durham Hartlepool
       William Lynas     Son                 4                             Yorks Middlesbrough
       Arabella Lynas     Daur             18                             Yorks Middlesbrough
(Source Citation: Class: HO107; Piece: 2383; Folio: 263; Pages: 2021; GSU roll: 87061).

The first household is that resulting from the marriage of William Hughes and Johanna Harrison. England, Select Marriages 1538-1973 records the following marriage on 3 Aug 1839 at West Acklam:
       William Hughes
       Joanna Harrison
The corresponding BMD Marriage Index has:
       William Hughes Sep1839 Stockton 24 142 (to Joanna Harrison).

Also, I draw attention to William's place of birth, Hartlepool. Jane Strong (nee Hughes), whom I hypothesize to be his sister, gives the same birthplace in her 1851 census return. William has not yet been connected with William the baker, but his neighbors are clearly daughters of William Hughes, the baker of the 1841 and 1851 censuses as we see now.

The next inhabited  household is that of Thomas and Elizabeth (nee Hughes) Brown. By the time of the following census, they even have a child named Arabella. England, Select Marriages 1538-1973 records the following marriage on 6 January 1846 in Middlesbrough:
       Elizabeth Hughes (Age:20; father: William Hughes)
       Thomas Brown (Father: James Brown)

Visiting with Elizabeth Brown (nee Hughes) in the 1851 Census is Mary Lynas, who, as we shall see, turns out to be Elizabeth’s sister. Note Mary's birthplace of Hartlepool, Durham. England, Select Marriages 1538-1973 records the following marriage on 21 November 1844 in Middlesbrough:
       Mary Davison Hughes (Father: William Hughes)
       Thomas Lynas (Father: Ralph Lynas)

The Arabella Lynas is most likely Arabella Hughes (daughter of William, the Baker, and Sarah, his wife) who the enumerator has confused as Mary’s daughter.

England and Wales Civil Divorce Records for 1863 document the dissolution of the Lynas marriage. The allegation was that Mary committed adultery on numerous occasions with one Joseph Ranson (who, as we shall see, she later married). Some of these occasions occurred at the Hope Inn in Hartlepool, where we find them in the 1861 England Census, recorded as husband and wife, even though this was before the divorce was even filed.
       Joseph Ranson          Head      Mar     47  Victualler  Durham Shiney Row
       Mary Ranson            Wife      Mar      37                    Durham Hartlepool
       Thomas Applegarth  Boarder  Mar     31  Joiner        Durham Bishopaukland
       Ara Applegarth         Boarder (Wife)  27                    York Middlesbro
       Thomas Applegarth  Boarder               1                     Durham West Hartlepool
       Pemelia Wood           Serv       Un      18 Domestic Servant  York Leeds
(Source Citation: Class: RG 9; Piece: 3702; Folio: 50; Page: 2; GSU roll: 543174).

The BMD Marriage Index has the following reference to Mary's remarriage:
       Mary Davison Lynas Dec1872 Stockton 10a 215  (to Joseph Ranson)

The BMD Death Index has:
       Mary Davison Ranson Dec1881 Guisborough 9d 339 Age: 58

Ara Applegarth is Arabella Hughes. England, Select Marriages 1538-1975 records the marriage on 31 Dec 1855 in Middlesbrough of Arrabella Hughes (father: William Hughes) and Thomas Applegarth (father: Robert Applegarth). This corresponds to BMD Marriage Index
        Arabella Hughes Dec1855 Stockton 10a 100 (to Thomas Applegarth)

The 1871 Census has the family on Brentwall Street, Middlesbrough (Source Citation: Class: RG10; Piece: 4893; Folio: 26; Page: 46; GSU roll: 848006).

The BMD Death Index has Arabella Applegarth Sep1874 Stockton 10a 40 Age:39.

Returning to the names on the 1841 Durham Street census, England, Select Marriages 1538-1975 records the marriage on 24 April 1845 in Middlesbrough:            
       Chapman Hughes (father: William Hughes)
        Frances Calvert (father: John Calvert)

This corresponds to BMD Marriage Index
        Chapman Hughes Jun1845 Stockton 24 229 (to Frances Calvert).

The 1851 England census has Chapman and Frances Hughes on Durham Street where his occupation is Butcher and birthplace Hartlepool, Durham (Source Citation: Class: HO107; Piece: 2383; Folio: 261; Page: 17; GSU roll: 87061). By 1861, they are in West Hartlepool, and he is a Joiner, as he had been apprenticed according to the 1841 census (Source Citation: Class: RG 9; Piece: 3702; Folio: 54; Page: 9; GSU roll: 543174).

The BMD Death Index has:
       Chapman Hughes Dec1865 Hartlepool 10a 80.

Natl Prob Cal records the death of Chapman Hughes Joiner on 11 November 1865, probate 13 Jun 1866 to Frances Hughes his widow.

There is one more sibling of Jane Hughes to recover. In the 1841 England Census, Joseph and Jane Strong are living with Thomas and Ann Bothwick. These would be the couple recorded in England, Select Marriages 1538-1973, married in West Acklam 9 June 1838:
       Anne Hughes and Joseph Bothwick.

This corresponds to BMD Marriage Index:
       Anne Hughes Jun1838 Stockton 24 171 (to Joseph Bothwick)

Which certificate looks worth the purchase, since it would confirm the identity of Anne's father as William Hughes, Baker, and thus link the whole reconstructed family, which currently I hypothesize as:
       William Hughes born 1798 Stockton
       Sarah ? born 1787‐1791
       Children (with approximate years of birth, place of birth and husband's last names):
              John                 1812‐1816 no place given
              William            1818         Hartlepool
              Jane                  1820         Hartlepool (Strong)
              Anne                1821         Hartlepool (Bothwick)
              Mary Davison  1823         Hartlepool (Lynas, then Ranson)
              Chapman          1824         Hartlepool
              Elizabeth          1826         Stockton (Brown)
              Hannah Eliza    1828        Stockton
              George              1831        Stockton
              Arabella            1834        Middlesbrough (Applegarth)

Sarah is the mother of the three born in Stockton, and, presumably, Arabella, but until we find baptisms for the children born in Hartlepool, We cannot rule out the possibility of a previous marriage.

Friday, January 16, 2015

Thrice Widowed

This post represents a little diversion from the direct family line. In looking for documents of the Strong family, I found the makings of a story. We have already seen the Strong steam tug family, headed by John Strong (1772-1858). He had two wives, Elizabeth Fairs, who bore him four children, and died in 1812; and Hannah Elliot, with whom he had another nine children, and outlived him. Of his first wife, Joseph Strong (1808-1879), the "Master, Steem Boat", is my 3x great grandfather. Today, I turn to John Strong, the younger (1801-1866), who is my 4x great uncle, brother of Joseph Strong, and especially John's wife, Jane, who married and buried three husbands.

So far, we have the following for John Strong the younger:
       Born 6 Feb 1801 and baptized 8 Mar 1801 

       according to the parish register at Newburn, Northumberland

He is the son of John Strong, the elder, and his first wife Elizabeth Fairs, as indeed was Joseph. His mother died in 1812, and John (and Joseph) were raised by their father and step-mother, Hannah Elliot. This information, his 1851 England Census in Middlesbrough with his wife, and 1861 England Census in Birkenhead with his stepmother are reported in a previous post.

The London Gazette 19 Dec 1856 cites John Strong the younger's movements preceding the 1861 Census. The context is a bankruptcy hearing to be held at Lancaster Court 2 January 1857.

       John Strong the younger, formerly of Middlesborough, in
       the county of York, Steam Tug-boat Owner, and a short
       time in copartnership with James Martin, as Printers
       and Stationers, afterwards of No. 31, Bridge-street,
       Birkenhead, in the county of Chester, Steam Tug-boat
       Owner, and late of Warren-street, Copperas-hill, Liverpool,
       in the county of Lancaster, out of business, living in

In 1851 John Strong is shown as married to Jane, born about Osmotherley, Yorkshire, which is near both Thirsk and Northallerton. While his age is given here as 50 years old, Jane is 25 years old. Given her age, I would expect to see this marriage occurring after civil registration became mandatory. A possible BMD Marriage Index in the same registration district as Middlebrough is:
       John Strong Jun1846 Stockton 24 244

While there are typically four grooms and four brides on each page of the register (and the index makes no attempt to match them at this date), the only match for first name is Jane Preston. The corresponding record in England, Select Marriages 1538 to 1973 has the additional data that the marriage is solemnized at St Thomas Stockton on Tees on 30 April 1846. Jane’s father is given as Thomas Preston, while John’s father - consistent with what we already know - is given as John Strong. The marriage certificate (which I do not have) would contain more confirmatory information on the occupations of John, the father, and John, the son, and maybe even useful addresses and witnesses.

John’s 1861 Census in Birkenhead lists him as married, not widowed, but with no sign of his wife. But, as it happens, there is a married Jane Strong on Commercial Street, Middlesbrough with no sign of her husband in the same census.
       James Marton Head        Mar  53  Printer Employing 2 Boys Durham Darlington
       Rachel Marton Wife        Mar  51                                          Yorkshire Thirsk

       Jane Strong Daur in Law Mar 32  Dress Maker                     Yorkshire Thirsk
(Source Citation: Class: RG 9; Piece: 3687; Folio: 3; Page: 6; GSU roll: 543172.)

This is interesting, since you will note that John had been briefly in partnership with James Martin as Printers and Stationers. The enumerator transcript has Marton, when it should be Martin, but this is clearly John's wife here. The father of the Jane Preston, married to John Strong in 1846, is given as Thomas Preston, whereas on this 1861 census Jane's "father-in-law" is James Martin. By father-in-law, I would suggest the census return intends step-father, which usage I have frequently seen in records of this period. Although I would hope to see a marriage record for Rachel Preston (widow) and James Martin, so far I have not.

The physical separation of John and Jane in 1861, and John's bankruptcy may be connected t0 their marriage not working out. It is interesting that they are each with their family of origin in 1861. The census was a week after Easter, so this is not a question of Mothering Sunday visits (which is the 4th Sunday in Lent). However, it is still possible that Jane was merely visiting with her parents in 1861, and intended to return to Birkenhead.

Ten years earlier, the 1851 England Census for James and Rachel Martin would appear to be East Row, Marshall’s Yard No. 3, Northallerton, Yorkshire.
       James Martin         Head  Mar 43  Printer Compositor  Durham Darlington
       Rachel Martin        Wife   Mar 41                                  Yorkshire Thirsk
       Christopher Martin Nephew     9  Scholar                     Durham Darlington
       James Paterson     Nephew     2                                   Scotland
(Source Citation: Class: HO107; Piece: 2377; Folio: 355; Page: 8; GSU roll: 8766687667.)

The couple’s names, places and years of birth, and James’s occupation connect this 1851 Census in Northallerton with the previously shown 1861 Census in Middlesbrough. Note also, the presence of James Paterson; the 1851 Census for John and Jane Strong possibly has his father and older sister, Alister and Elizabeth Patterson, with two tees.

John Strong died in 1866 in Birkenhead. 
His death record is:
       BMD Death Index Sep1866 Birkenhead 8a 269 Age:65

I have him in Birkenhead in 1856, 1861 and now 1866, so perhaps this was his continuous residence. We know that Jane was in Middlesbrough for the 1861 England Census, and wherever she was around this date, there is this record for the marriage of Jane Strong, in the same registration district as Middlesbrough.
       BMD Marriage Index Jane Strong Jun1869 Stockton 10a 179

By 1869, there are typically two grooms and two brides on each page of the register. In this case the possible grooms are Alexander Henry T Lewand or Isaac Bell. That the husband is Lewand is demonstrated in the 1871 England Census at Durham Street, Royal Hotel in Middlesbrough, Nos 2 & 4.
       Alex Henry Thos Lewand Head Mar 38 Licensed Victualler  Prussia
       Jane Lewand                     Wife Mar 37                                   Yorkshire Thirsk
(Source Citation: Class: RG10; Piece: 4890; Folio: 57; Page: 1; GSU roll: 848005.)

There is one visitor and several servants in addition, presumably all connected with the hotel that Alexander Lewand is running. Jane has aged only 5 years in the decade, but that is not unusual in census data, and this is almost certainly the Jane of the 1861 Census, previously shown. 

Alexander Lewand lives only two more years. The BMD Death Index has:
       Alexander Henry T Lewand Dec1873 Stockton 10a 34 Age:42

And a corresponding record from Natl Prob Cal has: Alexander Thomas Henry Lewand innkeeper died 20 October 1873 at Middlesbrough probate 11 November 1873 to Jane Lewand, widow.
The widow Lewand married again, this time within a year. The BMD Marriage Index has:
       Jane Lewand Sep1874 Stockton 10a 83 (to Henry Davey A Pring)

The corresponding record in England, Select Marriages 1538-1973 has the additional data that the marriage is solemnized in Middlesbrough on 8 August 1874. The groom is Henry Davey Adolphus Pring (father Malachi Pring); the bride is Jane Lewand (father James Martin). This last piece of information ties the last two marriages back to the Jane Strong, "daughter-in-law" in the household of James and Rachel Marton (i.e. Martin), and the business partner of John Strong.

But is this the same Jane as the first of the three marriages, who gives her father as Thomas Preston? As suggested above, possibly Thomas is her birth father, and James her stepfather. The first evidence to look at will be the 1846 marriage certificate to see if the groom, John Strong is our John Strong the younger, although at $14, it seems an extravagance to order it. 
But with no record of any children, and thus no direct descendants, how many family historians out there will be interested in finding out?

Only three years later, Jane is widowed once again, after which I lose track of her. The BMD Death Index for her third husband has:
       Henry Davey Adolphus Pring Dec1876 Middlesbrough 9d 334 Age:35.

One wife, Jane (possibly) Preston, three marriages and three funerals - her husbands getting younger by the decade.