Wednesday, July 23, 2014

More Hardmans Down Under and Elsewhere

Having had some luck finding Hardman children bearing the middle name Simmonds or Symond, I decided to try searching using one or other of these as a first name, and Hardman for surname, both in and on I was especially hoping to find more siblings for John Hardman, Captain of the Mizzen Top. The group of four baptisms from St Swithin Worcester seems small compared to many of the families I have researched. However, these may have been the eldest four, and the death of parents may have prevented there being more. Alternatively, I was just missing records of other siblings.

On, of the several results of the search, there was one belonging to an individual I had not seen before. England Births and Christenings 1538-1975 has:
       Ann Symons Hardman  baptized 28 Apr 1824 at Holy Trinity, Frome, Somerset
              parents: William and Elizabeth

Expanding the search for any Hardman, baptized in Frome, Somerset, I found:
       Matilda Hardman  17 Mar 1826  parents: William and Elizabeth
       Jane Hardiman      17 Jun 1821  parents: William and Elizabeth

Ann's middle name Symons seems likely to be a mis-spelling or spelling variant of Symonds, the maiden surname of William's mother. Matilda is surely Ann Symons Hardman's sister, and Jane also, given her parents names and the lack of other Hardiman baptisms at this place around this time. I was already looking for a Jane Hardman, since the marriage of Elizabeth Frances Hardman to John Green Winter was witnessed by a Jane Leicester, noted on the document to be a sister of Elizabeth.

I already have four children of William Hardman and Elizabeth Willis, among them John Hardman, Captain of the Mizzen Top (and my3xgreat grandfather). These all have a record of baptism at Swithin Worcester. And here, potentially, are three more, but from Frome, Somerset. William Hardman, the father, was born in Hereford, so these baptisms would indicate a move to Frome, before subsequently settling in Worcester.

The search was even more intriguing, since it showed me some pictures attached to a public member tree. These pictures were documents associated with Ann Symonds Hardman. They placed her in Australia. All these documents are held by Graham Smith in Australia, a descendent of Ann Symonds Hardman; and I am thankful to him and his family for treasuring and preserving them.

First, there is an official copy from 1877 of a certificate for a marriage originally solemnized on 16 January 1855 at Trinity Church, Adelaide, South Australia.
       Groom: George Kurn / 38 / Mariner / Bachelor
       Bride: Simmonds Hardman / 30 / / Spinster

This is only encouraging through its containing the name Simmonds Hardman. But there's more, an official copy from 1877 of a certificate for a marriage originally solemnized on 24 November 1869, also at Trinity Church, Adelaide, South Australia:
       Groom: Wm Thos Smith / 34 / Bachelor / Mariner / Lefevris Peninsula
                                   father: Robt Smith
       Bride: Ann Simmonds Kurn / 44 / Widow / / Lefevris Peninsula
                                   father: Wm Hardman
       signed: William Thomas Smith and Ann Simmond Smith
       witnessed: T Reid / Shipwright / Port Adelaide
                         J Leicester / / Port Adelaide

This confirms her father's name of William Hardman, and the possibility that, in addition, she shares with Elizabeth Frances Hardman a sister named Jane Leicester. But there's even more, a transcript of a declaration made in 1877 by Mrs. Ann Simmonds Smith for which the above were supporting documents:

       I, Ann Simmonds Smith (formerly Hardman) in Port Adelaide in the province of
       South Australia, wife of Thomas Smith of the same place, Master Mariner, do
       solemnly and sincerely declare and state as follows that I, Ann [am] the daughter of
       William Hardman late of Worcester Provisions Merchant deceased and Elizabeth,
       his wife (formerly Elizabeth Willis) deceased.

       That there were issue of my father William's marriage to his wife Elizabeth, ten
       children viz: William, Mary, Elizabeth, Jane, (me) this declarant Ann Simmonds
       Smith, Matilda, James, Thomas, John and Eliza.

       That my brother William and my sister Jane died some time since, the latter who
       had previously married James Isaac George Leicester late of Seferres, New South
       Wales, aforesaid Engineer died Twenty First day of July, One Thousand Eight
       Hundred and Seventy One. (21/07/1871)...

Which finally confirms that Ann Simmonds Smith (nee Hardman, widow Kurn) is the sister of Elizabeth Frances Hardman, and therefore John Hardman, Captain of the Mizzen Top. The list of siblings also contains all the names I have so far found as children of William Hardman and Elizabeth Willis, plus three additional names: William, Mary and Eliza. Interestingly, the names on the list from Jane through John are in their birth order, but Elizabeth (Frances) should be the youngest. this leads me to suspect that they are mixed up in the list, and that the missing siblings are the three oldest. If so, and assuming 2-3 years between births, then I would expect to see baptisms for William, Mary and Eliza between 1812 and 1819. And I do see one in Hereford for William in 1814, with parents William and Elizabeth, which tentative identification I include below. Here is the list, with their baptismal dates and location:

       William    18 Apr 1814  St John Baptist, Hereford, Herefordshire
       Jane          17 Jun 1821  Holy Trinity, Frome, Somerset
       Ann          28 Apr 1824  Holy Trinity, Frome, Somerset
       Matilda    17 Mar 1826  Holy, Trinity, Frome, Somerset
       James       30 Nov 1827 St Swithin, Worcester, Worcestershire
       Thomas    11 Oct 1829  St Swithin, Worcester, Worcestershire
       John          5 Sep 1831   St Swithin, Worcester, Worcestershire
       Elizabeth  9 Aug 1833  St Swithin, Worcester, Worcestershire

The wording of Ann's declaration implies that of the ten siblings, only two of them died to her knowledge. One of them is Mrs. Jane Leicester, for whom, in addition to Ann's declaration, the Australia Death Index 1787-1985 has:
       Jane Leicester; date of death: 21 Jul 1871; age: 50; residence: Norwood
              place of registration: Adelaide, South Australia; Page 102 Vol 102

Of the others in 1877:
       Ann is still alive (obviously, since she's making the declaration)
       James is in Clifton, Bristol in 1881
       Thomas is in Abergavenny, Monmouthshire in 1881
       John is in Milton near Gravesend, Kent in 1881
       Elizabeth is in Partick, Lanarkshire in 1881

So far, nothing from William, Mary, Eliza or Matilda. However, there is evidence for William Hardman, born in Hereford about 1814. England, Select Mariages, 1538-1973 records the marriage of William Hardman and Susan Mitchell at St Peter the Great, Worcester on 28 Jul 1844, corresponding to:
       BMD Marriage Index Sep1844 Worcester 18 563

The 1851 England Census at the Taylor Building, Worcester St Nicholas has:
       William Hardman  Head  Mar  37  Painter and Glazier Journeyman   Hereford
       Susan       Do         Wife  Mar    30                                            Worcester City St Swithins
       Elizabeth  Do         Daur  U       7                                                      Do              Do
       Eliza         Do         Daur  U       3                                                       Do              Do
       William    Do         Son    U       9 mo                                                Do              Do

And in 1861 at 4 Fish Street, Worcester St Helens:
       William Hardman  Head  Mar  47  Painter and Glazier  Hereford
       Susan         Do       Wife   Mar  40                                   Whitbourne Herefordsh
       Elizabeth    Do       Daur   Un   17  Gloveress                  Worcester
       Eliza          Do        Daur           13  Scholar                              Do
       Sophia       Do       Daur             5  Scholar                                Do

By 1871 at 45 Dolday, Worcester All Saints:
       Susan Hardman  Head  Widow  50  Gloveress  Herefordshire
[New page]
       Elisa Hardman    Daur  Unm     23    Gloveress  Worcester St Helen
       Sophia    do        Daur     do      14        do                  do      St Swithin
       George   do       Grandson          2mos                        do      All Saints

William Hardman's death is presumably that reported by:
       BMD Death Index William Hardman Jun1866 Worcester 6c 203 Age:52

This series of documents is consistent with William being the sibling known to Mrs. Ann Simmonds Smith to have died before 1877. At this point I am still on the lookout for more documents relating to Matilda, and any documents to Eliza and Mary. But I do believe I have the names of all the children of William Hardman, Provision Merchant of Worcester, and his wife Elizabeth Willis.

Tuesday, July 22, 2014

John Hardman on Mother's Day 1851

Motherly Piety: The Two Mothers by Dante Gabriel Rossetti 1851

The census of 1851 was taken on Sunday 30th March to record in each household or institution all the people who had spent the previous night there. That Sunday also included a religious census noting the number of seats and the number of attendees at as many religious institutions as could be identified. When the results of the religious census were published in 1854, pious Victorians were shocked to learn that of the twelve-and-a-half-million reckoned available to attend worship at least once that Sunday, more than 5 million had neglected to do so. Mostly, these lived in the new industrial cities. Of those who did attend worship, more than half were non-conformists.

The 1851 census also coincided with Mothering Sunday. Traditionally, this was the Sunday people returned to the church of their baptism, usually with their families. It became a day when domestic servants were allowed to visit home. Over time, the family significance replaced the religious significance, and the modern English Mother's Day is still celebrated on the fourth Sunday in Lent.

Having located John Hardman (later to be Captain of the Mizzen Top) on census night 1851, I became interested in how he was related to Elizabeth Maskell Widow living at High Town, Weobley, Herefordshire. Here is the return for her household at High Town:
       Elizabeth Maskell  Head  W  43  Shoemaker and Grocer    Herefords Hereford
       William     Do        Son         13   Grocer                                  Do      Weobley
        John         Do       Son          11  Scholar                                  Do      Weobley
       George      Do       Son           9   Scholar                                  Do          Do
       Mary         Do       Daur         7   Scholar                                  Do          Do
       John Hardman     Visitor  U 19  Seaman Royal Navy (Ap) Worcesters Worcester
       William Phillips  Servant  U  31  Grocer                             Monmouths Grosmont
       Charlotte Morgan Serv    U  17  General Servant                Herefords Weobley

The ancestry index has Markell, but it looks like Maskell to me. There are no Markells in Weobley, but England Births and Christenings, 1538-1975 has the following baptisms for children of John and Elizabeth Maskell in Weobley, Herefordshire:
       William Maskell 8 March 1838
       George Maskell 10 April 1842
       Mary Maskell     31 December 1843

These three, and John, have the following civil birth registrations in the BMD Birth Index:
       William Maskell Mar1838 Weobley 26
       John Maskell 1840 Weobley 26
       George Maskell Jun1842 Weobley 26
       Mary Maskell Dec1843 Weobley 26

There are also baptisms of children of Richard and Sarah Maskell in Weobley, Richard presumably being John's brother. There is also a record of the death of John Maskell, who is most likely Elizabeth's husband, the father of these children:
       BMD Death Index Jun1846 Weobley 26 171

In 1841, on Back Street, Weobley is this household:
        John Maskell  30  Shoemaker  Y[es, born in Herefordshire]
        Elizabeth do   30                      Y
        William  do     3                       Y
        John       do     1                       Y

And searching for a marriage record in Herefordshire for John Maskell and Elizabeth discovered England, Select Marriages, 1538-1973:
       John Maskell and Elizabeth Wilson at St Peter Hereford 18 Feb 1836

We have already met a couple of Wilsons, one of them Mary Wilson, dressmaker of Hereford who married James Hardman, the tailor; the other being William Wilson, her father, Sergeant at Mace of Hereford. This raises the possibility that Elizabeth Wilson, widow of John Maskell is another of his children. This being the case, John Hardman spent Mothering Sunday 1851 with his aunt's sister and her family. We will come to this later, after we have looked for another of Mary's sisters.

In The Tailor and Dressmaker of Hereford, we met Thomas Williams and Thomas Hardman (who, I suggest, are probably the same person) born in Hoarwithy, Herfordshire. We found him living with Mary and James Hardman. In 1861, Thomas Hardman born in Hoarwithy is described as grandson of Mary's father, William Wilson, and in 1871 as the nephew of James and Mary. From this, we can infer that he is the child of one of a sister of Mary. So, are there any Wilsons who marry Williams in the neighborhood of Hereford? The closest (Breinton is just to the west of Hereford) is this one in England, Select Marriages, 1538-1973:
       Thomas Williams and Sarah Wilson in Breinton, Herefordshire 10 Jul 1845

The names Mary, Elizabeth and Sarah as daughters of William Wilson compare well with a series of Hereford baptisms from England Births and Christenings, 1538-1975:
       Mary Wilson 21 Jan 1802 St Peter Hereford  William Henry and Elizabeth
       Elizabeth Wilson 22 Apr 1803 St Peter Hereford William and Elizabeth
       William Henry Wilson 1804 St Peter Hereford
       Caroline Wilson 9 Sep 1807 St Owen Hereford (born 12 Apr 1807)
       Henry Wilson 15 Nov 1809 St Peter Hereford (born 3 Sep 1809)
       James Wilson 1 Feb 1813 St John Hereford William Henry and Elizabeth
       Sarah Wilson 24 Jun 1818 St Peter Hereford William and Elizabeth
       Richard Wilson 11 Oct 1821 St Owen Hereford
Thomas and Sarah Williams of Hereford (the latter from St Peters, no less) may be found in the 1871 Wales Census at 30 Queen Square, Tredegar:
       Thomas [Williams]  Head  Mar  56  Brewer  Herefordsh Monnington on Wye
       Sarah         Do         Wife   Mar  53                       Do       Hereford
       Sarah E     Do          Daur  Unm 17                       Do       Hentland
       Caroline    Do          Daur           12  Scholar  Monmouthsh Nantyglo

And then in the England 1851 Census at the Harp Inn, Hentland
       Thomas Williams  Head  Married  36  Victualer  Monnington Hereford
       Sarah Williams      Wife     Do       30                   St Peters Hereford
       Francis Williams   Son                    5                    Hentland Hereford
       William Williams  Son                    3                    Hentland Hereford
       Thomas Williams  Son                    1                    Hentland Hereford

Hentland is near Hoarwithy, Herefordshire in the Ross-on-Wye registration district. And England Births and Christenings, 1538-1975 have the following baptisms at Hentland, all children of Thomas and Sarah Williams.
       Francis Williams                4 May 1846
       William Henry Williams    9 Apr 1848
       Thomas Williams              28 Oct 1849
       Sarah Elizabeth Williams  30 Nov 1851
       Ellen Gertrude Williams   26 Mar 1854

And their civil birth registrations in the BMD Birth Index must be:
       Francis Williams               Jun1846 Ross 26 245
       William Henry Williams   Mar1848 Ross 26 828 (this is not in the expected page range
                       for Ross, so the index entry is doubtful. I would suspect it is an error for 228)
       Thomas Williams               Dec1849 Ross 26 227
       Sarah Elizabeth Williams   Dec1851 Ross 26 235
       Ellen Gertrude Williams    Mar1854 Ross 6a 412

Note, there is no Thomas Hardman birth registered in the Ross registration district in 1849, so I am sure that Thomas Hardman of the 1861 England Census, born in Hoarwithy is Thomas Williams.

Of these, Francis Williams appears in Weobley for the 1861 England Census. The return is at High Street, Weobley, and the head of of household is none other than Elizabeth Maskell:
       Elizabeth Maskell Head Widow 56 Grocer Draper Hatter & Tallow Chandler
                                                                Employing 3 Men and 1 Boy  [Herefordshire] Hereford
       William     Do      Son     Un       23  Managing Grocery Business       Do             Weobley
       Mary         Do      Daur   Un       16                                                      Do                  Do
       James Phillips       Asst    Un      41  Grocers Assistant                 Monmouth Grossmont
       Francis Brewer     Clerk  Un      20  Bookkeeper                          Worcester Worcester
       Francis Williams  Ap      Un      15  Grocer's Ap                           Hereford Horewithy
       William Bowley   Asst    Un      19      Do     Assistant                       Do     Dilwyn
       Mary Phillips        Serv   Un      15  Domestic Servant                        Do     Kenchurch

Conclusion: By March 1851, John Hardman had made the rank of Boy 1st Class, and signed on (on the 9th) to serve with HMS Prince Regent. He apparently was on leave on census night, enumerated in the household of Elizabeth Maskell in Weobley, Herefordshire. The genealogical data are consistent with Elizabeth Maskell being his aunt's sister, providing a plausible explanation as to why he is found there. Elizabeth's later census return of 1871 links her to Mrs. Sarah Williams (through the latter's son, Francis). We previously saw that census returns of 1861 and 1871 link another Wilson sister (Mrs. Mary Hardman) to Mrs. Sarah Williams (through her son, Thomas). While the Wilson's are not directly related to me, the research gives us some idea of John Hardman's extended family. We do not know how long his leave lasted, nor who else he may have visited, although I suspect his parents had died by then, maybe even before 1841. In fact, I have so far found no direct evidence for them. His spending Mothering Sunday with Mrs. Maskell may indicate a close relationship with this part of the family, such as I have already found between his brother Thomas and the Tailor and Dressmaker of Hereford.

Wednesday, July 9, 2014

The Tailor and Dressmaker of Hereford

The Old House, Hereford

So far, I know my 4xgreat grandfather William Hardman was a provision merchant married to Elizabeth Willis and had four children by her, baptized between 1827 and 1834 in Worcester. Among his grandchildren is Edith Simmonds Hardman (my 2xgreat grandmother). Her middle name always seemed to me to recall a maiden surname somewhere in her ancestry, but up to this point I hadn't discovered where.

I have found no census returns for William Hardman, although I do have them for the four children, baptized in Worcester: John (Captain of the Mizzen Top, my 3xgreat grandfather), James (Labourer in Bristol), Thomas (Tailor in Hereford) and Elizabeth (Wife of John Green Winter who moved to Glasgow). It was a census return of Thomas the Tailor which caught my eye.

In 1851, on East Street at Hereford St Owen, in the household of James Hardman:
       James Hardman  Head             Mar  52  Tailor                   Herefordsh Hereford
       Mary       Do         Wife              Mar  49  Dressmaker               do               do
       Thomas  Do         Nephew          U     21  Tailor                   Worcestersh Worcester
       William Wilson  Father in law     W    75  Sergeant at Mace Herefordsh Hereford

As for finding William Hardman's relatives, Thomas the nephew is consistent with Thomas Hardman, son of William and Elizabeth, who was baptized 11 October 1829 in Worcester. And this would make James Hardman the head of household, William's brother.

Mary's father, William Wilson, was one of the civic officials who carried who carried the ceremonial mace at council meetings, etc. It is with him that we find the family in 1861, at 12 Price's Hospital in Hereford, which a brief google search shows to be almshouses founded in 1665.
       William Wilson   Head        Widr 85  Resident in Hospital        Hereford Hereford
                                                            (formerly Sergeant at Mace)
       Mary Hardman   daur          Mar  59  Dressmaker                                 do
       James    do        son in law  do    62  Tailor                                          do
       Thomas do        Grandson           11  Scholar                                 do      Hoarwithy
       Thomas do         Visitor       Un    31  Tailor                               Worcester Worcester

In 1871, we find them at 1 Gloster Plce, All Saints, Hereford. By this time William Wilson must have died, and Thomas grandson is no longer present:
       James Hardman  Head       Mar  72  Tailor      Hereford
       Mary     do           Wife         do    69                        do
       Thomas do          Nephew  Unm 41  Tailor      Worcester
       Thomas Williams   do         do    20  Plumber  Hereford Hoarwithy

Thomas Williams in 1871 may be the same as Thomas Hardman the grandson in 1861, with the latter surname incorrectly given. That he is a grandson to William Wilson does not mean that he is a son to James and Mary Hardman. I see no records of baptisms for possible children of James and Mary, leading me to the conclusion that they may not have had children of their own. Nor do I see a civil registration for Thomas Hardman born 1848-52 in Herefordshire - plenty of Thomas Williamses, though. I'm guessing he is an adopted son.

Just possibly James and Mary had also adopted William and Elizabeth's Thomas as well. Had they died before 1841, that would explain the lack of records for them. But it would not be uncommon for a child to be apprenticed out to an uncle, so I'll not give up on the records.

In 1881, Thomas Hardman is a lodger, aged 51, still a tailor, living at 21 Lower Castle Street, Abergavenny, after which I lose track of him. As well as documenting the life of a putative 4xgreat uncle, it also provides a clue to finding the origins of a 5xgreat uncle and his brother, my direct ancestor William Hardman Provision Merchant.

Thomas Hardman (my 5xgreat uncle), according to his census returns was born about 1798-99 in Hereford. My next stop was to look for Hardmans born in Hereford around this time. England Births and Christenings 1538-1975 shows baptisms for two families, both at St John Baptist, Hereford.

For parents parents William and Mary Hardman:
       Hester Hardman  15 Mar 1787
       Mary Hardman    28 Mar 1793

For parents James Hardman and Mary:
       Thomas Hardman  30 Aug 1784
       Mary Hardman       9  Sep 1786
       James Hardman     15 Dec 1789
       John Hardman       11 Mar 1794
       Richard Hardman  26 Jun 1796
       James Hardman     24 Sep 1798  (the older sibling James must have died)

There is no William Hardman baptized here around this time, but there is:
     William Hoardman  23 Jan 1792 (parents: James and Mary)

Which I would hazard as another of this sibling group. There is no other Hoardman baptism, and the date fits the series of baptisms well. Note especially, the consistency of James Hardman baptized in 1798 and the James Hardman Tailor of the censuses. In addition, England Marriages 1538-1973 has
       James Hardman and Mary Symonds 10 April 1783 at St Martin Hereford

In an age before standardized spelling, Symonds and Simmonds are surely the same name, and a clue that I am on to something. James Hardman and Mary Symonds are my 5xgreat grandparents. In addition, there are other Symonds connections.

Of the Hereford baptisms to James and Mary Hardman, I have found no direct evidence for William (Hoardman), my direct ancestor, although I have so far shown evidence for his children and brother James. I ought to be able to find some of the other children, if they lived into their 50 and 60s, of this couple.

In 1841, I find at Packer's Lane, Hereford St John, Thomas Hardman, age 56, Bottler, with household: Phoebe Hardman (presumably his wife), age 54; Mary Bowson, age 30, Straw Bonnet Maker; Elizabeth Hardman (presumably a daughter), age 17; and William Hardman (presumably a son), age 20. By 1851, Thomas (66), Wine Cooper, and Phoebe (64) are at 8 Price's Hospital, Hereford.

Searching for Thomas and Phoebe's children discovers the following baptisms:
       James Hardman       28 Mar 1813  All Saints Hereford
       Thomas Hardman    15 Jan 1817   St John Baptist Hereford
       William Hardman     9 Dec 1820  St John Baptist Hereford
       Elizabeth Hardman 10 Nov 1824  St John Baptist Hereford

John Hardman, with (presumed) wife Sarah and daughters Eliza, Elizabeth and Emily, is also in Hereford in 1841, where he had been baptized. However, his 1851 census at Bowsey Lane or Portfields, Hereford shows some evidence of movement:
       John         Hardman  Head  Mar  57  Accountant       [Hereford]
(new page)
       Sarah        Hardman Wife  Mar  56                            Ludlow Salop
       Sarah             Do      Daur   U     29 School Mistress     Do      Do
       Elizabeth A    Do      Daur   U     20  Assistant Do      Hereford
       Emily             Do      Daur   U     18                                 Do

Searching for baptisms in Ludlow and Hereford (parents John Hardman and Sarah) discovers the following:
       John Hardman                         22 Nov 1818 in Ludlow
       Caroline Simmonds Hardman  5 Sep 1820 in Ludlow
                                           (burial 30 Sep 1821, and father John Simmonds Hardman)
       Sarah Hardman                        26 Apr 1822 in  Ludlow
       Mary Hardman                        27 Jun 1824 in Ludlow
       James Henry Hardman             9 Jul 1826 at St Peter Hereford
       Eliza Hardman                         22 Jan 1829 at All Saints Hereford
       Elizabeth Alice Hardman        27 Feb 1831 at All Saints Hereford
       Emily Hardman                       24 Feb 1833 at St Peter Hereford

Four of the daughters (Sarah, Eliza, Elizabeth and Emily) may be found in the 1841 and/or 1851 census returns for John and Sarah Hardman, while Caroline Simmonds Hardman is clearly a granddaughter of James Hardman and Mary Symonds.

Richard Hardman and wife Katherine are found in 1851, eight houses before John and Sarah, where he is the landlord at the purportedly now-haunted Wellington Arms in Widemarsh Street:
       Richard Hardman   Head       Mar  54  Innkeeper    Hereford        [Herefordshire]
       Katherine  Do         Wife         Mar  50                      Mansell Lacy            Do
       George      Do         Son          U    20   Clerk           Hereford                   Do
       Charles      Do        Son           U   16   Scholar             Do                        Do
       Ann S         Do        Daur               14      Do                 Do                        Do
       Alfred         Do        Son                 12      Do                 Do                       Do
       Emily S      Do        Daur                10      Do                 Do                        Do
       Katherine S  Do      Daur                 7       Do                Do                        Do
       Susan Guy        Sister in law    U   44  Barmaid       Mansell Lacy             Do
       Richard Guy     Brother in law  U   35  Groom         Hereford                    Do
       Martha Cook        Serv             U   16  House Serv  Dinedor                     Do

England Select Marriages 1538-1973 has the marriage of Richard Hardman and Catherine Guy 20 November 1825 at St John Baptist Hereford.

No prizes for guessing the middle initial S of his daughters. England Birth and Christenings 1538-1975 have the following baptisms to Richard and Catherine Hardman:
       Richard Hardman                  5 Sep 1826 at St John Baptist Hereford
       Ann Simmonds Hardman   18 Nov 1836  at All Saints Hereford
       Emily Simmond Hardman   30 Apr 1841 at All Saints Hereford

So far I have not found baptisms for George, Charles, Alfred or Katherine, but there is the following civil registration:
       BMD Birth Index Catherine Symonds Hardman Jun1843 Hereford 26 179

Thus, the name Simmonds/Symonds/Simmond connects my direct ancestor William Hardman, Provision Merchant, whose granddaughter was Edith Simmonds Hardman, with the baptisms 1784-1798 at St John Baptist Hereford of the children of James and Mary Hardman. And it is this mother whose maiden surname is Symonds.

Monday, July 7, 2014

Children of William Hardman, Provision Merchant of Worcester

Friar Street - at the other end of the Shambles from St Swithun's

The next question concerns the family of origin of John Hardman, Captain of the Mizzen Top. This has some of the elements of a mystery, something I enjoy in research. Given a possible baptismal record, how much evidence can I find for it being the John Hardman in question, my 3xgreat grandfather?

From his service records, John Hardman was born in Worcester on 13 August 1831. Even before I had these records, his various census returns suggested 1831-2.  Using with his name, and place and year of birth came up with the following baptism at St Swithin Worcester:
       John Hardman  5 September 1831  Parents: William and Elizabeth

This is consistent on three counts for his census returns, even down to the parish in 1871. Ancestry have his place of birth on the 1871 England Census transcribed as "St Isnelen", when I can make out St Swithin. Often, and especially in 18th century records, consistency in name, time and place is as good as it gets. But I did want to see if there was more evidence than this. Broadening the search, finds three more baptisms at St Swithin Worcester of children with these parents:
       James Hardman      30 November 1827
       Thomas Hardman   11 October 1829
       Elizabeth Hardman  9 August 1833

Any of these might have left a record confirming that John Hardman baptized on 5 September 1831 grew up to become Captain of the Mizzen Top. Using a search in, I looked for records of each of these Hardmans with birthplace Worcester and their appropriate year of birth, and parent's names.

Among searches for records of the Hardman siblings from Worcester, I found census returns from Bristol for James Hardman, Labourer, born in Worcester 1827-28, and wife Mary Ann. These are consistent with James Hardman of the baptisms at St Swithin's, although I have no direct evidence for this.
Another set of census returns (1851 through 1881) for a Thomas Hardman, Tailor, unmarried, and born about 1829-30 in Worcester most likely is the Thomas of the St Swithin's baptism.

Women are more difficult to find after marriage, so I searched specifically for a marriage occuring between 1848 and 1860 for Elizabeth Hardman. I found this one solemnized 15 July 1850 at St George the Martyr Southwark.
       Groom: John Green Winter / 21 / Bachelor / Draper / Suffolk Street
                                                       father: Robert Winter / Relief Officer
       Bride: Elizabeth Frances Hardman / 17 / Spinster / / Suffolk Street
                                                       father: William Hardman / Provision Merchant
       Signed: John Green Winter and Elizabeth Frances Hardman
       Witnesses: Richd Bell and Jane Leicester

At least, it looks like Jane Leicester; and there is a note below the entry that she is a sister of Elizabeth Hardman. (However, I have not been able to find any records for her yet). Although name, age and father's name all match, Elizabeth is far from Worcester. However, the married couple are easy to locate in the 1851 England Census at Francis Cottage, Mile End Old Town:
       John Green Winter  Head  Mar  20  Draper  Haigh St Marylebone, Middlesex
       Elizabeth Winter      Wife  Mar  17                Shambles Worcester

St Swithin's (these days St Swithun's, although now a redundant church) lies at one end of The Shambles in Worcester. Thus, the Elizabeth of the marriage record is quite possibly, the Elizabeth of the baptism record. Tentatively adding this to my tree notified me of other trees that might have the same person. One of these trees referenced a death registration in Glasgow for her in 1918 under the name Elizabeth Francis McDougall. Although I try to hold back from purchasing too many records outside of my ancestry subscription, I decided upon the marriage certificate for John Hardman and Amelia Hatt, and the death registration for Elizabeth Francis Hardman or Winter or McDougall. The former came by regular post from the General register Office, and the latter electronically from

First, the marriage certificate, from which my chief interest for now lies in the father of the groom. The marriage was solemnized on 8 August 1865 at the parish church in Grays, Essex:
       Groom: John Hardman / 34 / Widower / Coastguard / West Tilbury
                                                          father: William Hardman / Provision Dealer
       Bride: Amelia Hatt / 24 / Spinster / / Grays Thurrock
                                                          father: Thomas Hatt / Coastguard
       signed: John Hardman and Amelia Hatt
       witnessed: Cyprian Hatt, Eliza Booth, E Gaze, and Arthur Jeremiah Booth

Thus, it is all but certain that Elizabeth Hardman (who married John Green Winter) is the sister of John Hardman (my 3xgreat grandfather). The ages for Elizabeth and John at the time of marriage predict the years of birth which match the baptisms at St Swithin Worcester.

The second record is the civil death registration for Elizabeth Hardman.

Death registration for Elizabeth Frances Hardman or Winter or MacDougall

             Elizabeth                                    1918            F    85       William Hardman
             Frances                                       July                  years    General Merchant
             MacDougall                               First                              (deceased)
             (Widow of 1st                            11h a.m.
             John Green Winter                     12                                 Elizabeth Hardman
             Excise Officer                            Falkland Mansions       M.S. Willis
             2nd Alexander MacDougall      Glasgow                       (deceased)
             Letterhead Printer

The death registration has a consistent occupation for William Hardman. A provision merchant/dealer traded in such foods as meat, cereals, fruit, and vegetables. A general merchant or grocer would have bought and sold foodstuffs plus any household items. It also offers a maiden name (M.S. = Maiden Surname) for his wife, Elizabeth Willis. The accuracy of this information depends on the memory of the informant, Elizabeth Frances's daughter, May V S Petrie (nee Winter).

In answer to my initial question seeking evidence for linking John Hardman, baptized at St Swithin, Worcester in 1831 with John Hardman, Captain of the Mizzen Top, I have (in addition to his name):
       1. Date of birth of latter would make him a little over 3 weeks old at baptism;
       2. Place of birth of latter alway given as Worcester, and even as St Swithin in 
           the 1871 Census;
       3. Father's name is William Hardman;
       4. Elizabeth Frances Hardman, born 1833-34 has father of same name and occupation, and she 
           corresponds to Elizabeth Hardman baptized at St Swithin's at a consistent 
           time, presumed sister of the John baptized same place in 1831).

As you see, I was able to add only a little to the evidence linking John Hardman, Captain of the Mizzen Top to John Hardman, baptized at St Swithin Worcester 5 September 1831. The question of Jane Leicester's identity remains. But I do believe I have some evidence for the fate of each of the children of William Hardman and Elizabeth Willis from the St Swithin's baptisms. Next up, William Hardman, his siblings and parents, and why Edith Hardman, John's daughter, has the middle name Simmonds.

Friday, July 4, 2014

John Hardman, Captain of the Mizzen Top, and vessels in which he served

Royal Navy Uniforms c1850

John Hardman is a bearer of the naval tradition in our family. During his career (1848 to 1875), he witnessed the transition from sail propulsion to steam-powered screw-driven ships, from wooden hulls to ironclads, and an increasing professionalization of the lower deck. This was an era of technological innovation and changes in naval tactics. He enlisted as a Boy 2nd Class, rose to the rank of Petty Officer, rated as Captain of the Mizzen Top, and ended his career as a Commissioned Boatman in the Coastguard, retiring with a pension.

By way of genealogical orientation, John Hardman is the father of Edith Simmonds Hardman, who married George William Parks, lighterman, killed in his tug by a V1 in 1944. And their daughter Edith Violet Parks is my great grandmother, known to me as Nan mum. I believe this was coined by my father, although she was in fact his mother's mother, but she was certainly my nan's mum. In any case, this makes John Hardman my 3xgreat grandfather.

We have already met John Hardman briefly. Rather than report all the details from there, here follows a summary of census information about him. However, I am still missing his whereabouts in 1841, and if anyone has found this, I would be pleased to know.

1851 Census at High Town, Weobley, Herefordshire.
       Household of Elizabeth Maskell, Widow and Grocer
       John Hardman U[nmarried] 19 Seaman Royal Navy (Ap[prentice])
                                                                              Worcesters[hire] Worcester

1861 Census on board HMS Encounter, Yokohama, Japan.
       Captain Roderick Dew commanding
       John Hardman  Captn Miz Top  Single  30  Worcester[shire] Worcester

Between this and the next census, the marriage of John Hardman and Amelia Hatt is found at:
       BMD Marriage Index Sep1865 Orsett 4a 160

1871 Census at 56 Clarance [sic] Street, Milton near Gravesend, Kent
       John Hardman  Head  Mar  39  Coast Guard  Worcester St Swithin

1881 Census at 2 Elliott Street, Milton near Gravesend, Kent
       John Hardman  Head  Mar  49  Pensioner  Worcester

1891 Census at 7 Range Road, Denton near Gravesend, Kent
       John Hardman  Head  Mar  59  Labourer at Soap Works  Worcester

It looks as though his pension was not going so far by 1891, and he was supplementing the family income with extra work. By 1901 Amelia Hardman is living at 56 Dixon Street, Limehouse, a Widow. There is a entry for a civil death registration for John Hardman, consistent with this location, and with his calculated year of birth:
       BMD Death Index Jun1897 Stepney 1c 248 Age:65

The National Archives in Kew has a searchable index of records. The following two records are for our John Hardman. They are ADM139/308/30797, which details his service with the Royal Navy from 7 March 1848 through to Coast Guard service in 1875. This contains two sign-ons (1856 and 1866) for continuous service, plus a sheet accounting his time toward eligibility for a pension; and ADM188/64/75812 with a single sheet showing Coastguard service. His RN service number was 30797, while his Coastguard service number is 75812. All the documents show his place of birth as Worcester, and his date of birth as 13 August 1831. The latter document includes the curious detail of his tattoos for purposes of identification:
       Ship, woman & flower vase on right: Crucifix with man & woman on left arm

He is described as 5 feet 4 inches, with black (1856), dark (1866) or brown (1875) hair, and eyes brown (1856) or blue (1866). The description of his complexion changes from "Fair" (1856), to "Ruddy" (1866) and "Dark" (1875) indicating a certain weathering during his time in service! In 1856 and 1866, the documents report no distinguishing marks, while the tattoos are mentioned in 1875, so they may be mementoes obtained toward the end of his service.

Between 1856 and 1866, John Hardman learned, at the very least, to sign his name. Under signature or mark, for his signing up for continuous service in 1856, there is an X. In 1866, he has signed his name.

Having deciphered the handwriting on ADM139/308/30797, and comparing the ships' names against their published records (they can all be found on wikipedia, as can many pictures of them), here is my account of his service. The sign-on sheets detail his past records to that point, and do not always agree on details with the timesheet.

       HMS Illustrious (launched 1803 at Rotherhithe)
       14 Feb 1848 to 24 Oct 1848  Boy 2nd Class
              Launched 1803 at Rotherhothe, HMS Illustrious was a third-rate ship of 74 guns.
              By third-rate is meant that she had two gun decks, and between 64 and 80 guns,
              which was considered to be a good compromise between power and sailing ability.
              After the Napoleonic Wars, HMS Illustrious was laid up in reserve, and although
              recommissioned in 1832, was laid up again in 1845. At the time John Hardman
              service, HMS Illustrious was a probably a receiving and training ship. She was
              finally broken up in 1868.
HMS Illustrious (right)
       HMS Powerful
       25 Oct 1848 to 12 Aug 1849  Boy 2nd Class
       13 Aug 1849 to 8 Mar 1851   Boy 2nd Class
              The service time is broken into two by Hardman's 18th birthday, which starts
              the clock for his pension.
              HMS Powerful, launched 1826 in Chatham, was an 84-gun Canopus-class
              second-rate, with a complement of 635 men, 60 boys, (of which John Hardman
              was one) and 150 marines, launched 1826 in Chatham. By the time of John
              Hardman's service, she was stationed in the Mediterranean, commanded by
              Captain Sir Richard Saunders Dundas. Used as a gunnery target in 1860,
              HMS Powerful was finally broken up in 1864.

HMS Vengeance another Canopus-class ship
       HMS Prince Regent
       9 Mar 1851 to 28 Feb 1852   Boy 1st Class
       29 Feb 1852 to 1 Jan 1853 Ordinary Seaman 2nd Class
       2 Jan 1853 to 6 Mar 1854    Ordinary Seaman
              The service time is broken into three due to promotions. His 1851 Census in
              Weobley was at the outset of this service when he was Boy 1st Class, which
              the census enumerator recorded as Seaman Royal Navy (Ap).
              HMS Prince Regent, launched 1823 in Chatham, was a 120-gun first-rate with
              three gun decks of the Caledonia-class. By 1847, she was reduced to 92 guns
              on two decks (razeed), and commenced service in the Channel squadron. John
              Hardman left the service of this vessel immediately prior to its departure to the
              Baltic and participation in the Crimean War. HMS Prince Regent underwent
              conversion to screw propulsion in 1861, but never went to sea, and was broken
              up in 1873.
       HMS Neptune
       7 Mar 1854 to 4 Apr 1855  Ordinary Seaman
              HMS Neptune, launched 1832 in Portsmouth, was a 120-gun first rate ship, of the
              Caledonia-class. John Hardman transferred from HMS Prince Regent to HMS
              Neptune at the same time as his commanding officer Captain Frederick Hutton,
              and the flag of Rear Admiral Lowry Corry. Until September 1854, HMS Neptune
              was stationed in the Baltic. By November, she was off to Malta as a troop
              transport, returning to Spithead with invalids from the siege of Sevastopol. John
              Hardman left the service of HMS Neptune at Spithead.
              She was refitted with screw propulsion in 1861 and sold out of the service in 1875.

HMS Neptune from Illustrated News 1854
       HMS Exmouth
       5 Apr 1855 to 6 Mar 1856  Able Seaman
              HMS Exmouth, launched 1854 in Devonport, was a 91-gun second-rate of the
              Albion-class. She was converted to screw propulsion, retaining her sails, while
              being built. John Hardman joined her as soon as she was commissioned under
              the command of Captain William King Hall. After service in the Baltic and
              Mediterranean, HMS Exmouth returned to Plymouth.
              HMS Exmouth remained in service until 1905.

HMS Albion, the name-ship of this class
       HMS Calcutta
       7 Mar 1856 to 12 Aug 1859 Able Seaman
              The first extant sign-on papers for ten-years continuous service begin on HMS
              Calcutta, although John Hardman had several years of service behind him by
              this time. Up to 1853, sailors signed on for a single engagement, being paid off
              at the end the voyage. After 1853, sailors signed up for continuous service, ten
              years at a time. This enabled the Royal Navy to retain trained seamen.
              HMS Calcutta, launched 1831 in Bombay, was an 84-gun second-rate. For most
              of the 1840s until the Crimean War, she was laid up in reserve. John Hardman
              followed Captain William King Hall and the flag of Rear Admiral Michael
              Seymour from HMS Exmouth. She saw action in the Second Opium War, and
              in 1858 became the first ship of the line to visit Japan. In 1865, she was converted
              to a gunnery ship in Devonport, and sold to be broken up in 1908.

HMS Calcutta and HMS Cambridge, no longer sailing

       HMS Impregnable
       13 Aug 1859 to 30 Sep 1859 Able Seaman
              HMS Impregnable, launched 1810 in Chatham, was a 98-gun second-rate. By
              the 1850s, she was stationed in the reserve at Plymouth. John Hardman stayed
              a few weeks before obtaining a foreign station. HMS Impregnable eventually
              became a training ship for boys in Scotland, and was broken up in 1906 after
              close to a century of service.

       HMS Encounter
       1 Oct 1859 to 3 Aug 1864 Captain Mizzen Top
              His 1861 Census in Yokohama, Japan is from the time of this service.
              HMS Encounter, launched 1846 at Pembroke, was a 14-gun sloop, the smallest
              of the ships so far, that John Hardman served in. As with HMS Exmouth, HMS
              Encounter was a sailing ship, converted to screw propulsion while being built.
              From 1852 until 1864 she served in eastern stations off China and the East Indies.
              John Hardman served under the command of Captain Roderick Dew, first as
              escort for gunboats Bouncer and Snap, then in the Taiping Rebellion, and lastly
              visiting Japan. She was broken up 1864 at Devonport.

HMS Encounter in China

       HMS Canopus
       4 Aug 1864 to 29 Sep 1864 Captain Mizzen Top
              HMS Canopus, launched by the French in 1798 as Franklin, and captured at
              the Battle of the Nile shortly after, was an 84-gun third-rate of the Tonnant-class.
              After a career in the Napoleonic Wars, HMS Canopus saw no action thereafter.
              In 1864,when John Hardman joined her, she was being fitted out as a receiving
              ship. She was finally broken up in 1887.

HMS Canopus
       HMS Pembroke
       30 Sep 1864 to 4 Jan 1870 Boatman Coastguard
              His second extant sign-on papers are dated 1866 for service on HMS Pembroke.
              HMS Pembroke, launched 1812 in Blackwall, was a 74-gun third-rate. By about
              1855, she had been converted to a "blockship" or floating battery, with 60 guns,
              and fitted with screw propulsion. In 1858, she was transferred to the Coastguard.
              During John Hardman's service with her, HMS Pembroke was stationed at Harwich.

HMS Pembroke

       HMS Penelope
       5 Jan 1870 to 8 Mar 1875 Commissioned Boatman
              His 1871 Census in Milton near Gravesend, Kent confirms his occupation
              as Coastguard.
              HMS Penelope, launched 1867 in Pembroke, was the last small ironclad built
              for the Royal Navy. Being armored with iron, she was able to carry only a few
              big guns, arranged in a box battery along her main deck. At some point, and this
              is where John Hardman may have served in her, HMS Penelope was stationed
              in Harwich. His service dates with her are 1 Jan 1873 to 27 Aug 1875 on the
              Coastguard record, which exceeds the date specified on his Royal Navy record.
              But there is some additional scrawl which I have not yet deciphered.

HMS Penelope
According to Admiralty accounting, up to the 8 March 1875, John Hardman had accrued 25 years 214 days of pensionable service. I haven't checked to see if they were correct. The maximum retirement age for Coastguard was 50 years old. At his retirement on 27 August 1875, he had recently (on the 13th) turned 46. By that time he had three Good Conduct Badges, which were awarded for years of service with exemplary character.

For some of these ships I noticed that there Admiralty records at the National Archive in Kew. These records may contain more information on John Hardman's career, so there is certainly more to find out about him. But for now, I think, this will suffice.