Friday, December 12, 2014

North British Accents

One of my first jobs was with British Sugar in Norfolk. I remember a time when I travelled to Newcastle with a colleague who had a strong Norfolk accent. Near our destination, somewhere between the Tees and the Tyne, he stopped to ask directions, and neither he nor the road-workers could understand each other's accents! I was, however, able to translate for us. And I wonder sometimes how my ancestors would have sounded, our accents separated by both time and distance, and whether I could understand their speech.

The previous post established a strong (no pun intended!) likelihood that the father of Joseph Strong ("Master Steem Boat", and my 3x great grandfather) is John Strong (formerly Keelman, and later Steam Boat Owner). John Strong would be husband of, first, Elizabeth Fairs, the mother of Joseph, and three brothers; and, second, Hannah Elliot, mother of nine children.
The hypothesized life of John Strong runs as follows:
       born about 1772 in Ryton, Durham (according to his marriage to Elizabeth Fairs)
              or Newburn, Northumberland (according to his 1851 England Census);
       marries 1. Elizabeth Fairs in Newburn, Northumberland, near Scotswood 1796;
              they have four children in Newburn;
       widowed between 1807 and 1813
       marries 2. Hannah Elliot and moves to Heworth (near Felling Shore), Durham before 1814
              they have eight children in Heworth, Durham;
       moves to Middlesbrough, Yorkshire, between 1830 and 1838;
              they have one more child, born in Middlesbrough;
       moves once more after 1851 to Birkenhead, Cheshire;
       dies 10 March 1858 in Birkenhead.

The data so far are consistent with this sequence of events. But just to complicate things, parents John and Ann Strong baptize a daughter, Ann, at Newburn on 18 Dec 1796, so likely there is more than one John Strong around in Newburn in the 1790s.

In effect, there are two sets of data, one for a family of John Strong and Elizabeth Fairs, and another for a family of John Strong and Hannah Elliot. This post details the evidence of their sharing the same John Strong.
First, John Strong, stepson of Hannah Elliot (1861 England Census), to John Strong, son of Elizabeth Fairs (1801 baptism) share the following:
       (1.) name (John Strong);
       (2.) year of birth (1801, consistent with infant baptism);
       (3.) place of birth (Scotswood, Northumberland).

Connecting this with my ancestry, obviously Joseph Strong of the 1807 baptism is a brother of John Strong of the 1801 baptism. This Joseph Strong and the census returns for my 3x great grandfather share:
       (1.) name (Joseph Strong);
       (2.) consistent year of birth (about 1807, consistent with infant baptism);
       (3.) place of birth on censuses is Heworth, Durham (1851) and Felling Shore (1871),
              which, while not identical to the baptism - given as Scotswood - is consistent with
              a supposed upbringing in Heworth.

In addition the Joseph of the census returns is connected with this supposed family of John and
Hannah (Elliot) Strong in the following ways:
       (1.) his Steam Tug work;
       (2.) moves out of Middlesbrough around the same time.

Second, around this time I was looking for a death record for John's first wife Elizabeth Fairs, which has presumably occured between 1807 (when Joseph was born to Elizabeth) and 1814 (when Elizabeth was born to Hannah). I followed up on a lead on a private tree on ancestry, and was not disappointed. The tree's owner, Judith from Wirral, Merseyside kindly sent me this photograph of a headstone at St Mary's Heworth, Durham. This is the resting place of Elizabeth Fairs, wife of John Strong, and mother of William (1798), John (1801), Anthony (1803), and Joseph (1807) of the baptisms at Newburn, Northumberland, previously cited.

The elements have damaged the left side of the inscription in particular, and here is
a transcript of what we can read, or infer.

       to the Memory of ELIZABETH, wife of JOHN STRONG
       […Daug]hter of WILLIAM FAIRS,
       […died] Jan. 11, 1812, aged 34 years.
       [… HI]S SON DIED JUNE 12, 1817 AGED
       19 YEARS.
       […] above WILLIAM FAIRS
       [w]ho died Feb. 5, 1836, aged 81 Years.
       DIED APRIL 6TH 1850 aged 47 Years

This further narrows down John's move from Northumberland, since Elizabeth was buried in Durham in 1812. The headstone appears to have been inscribed in the order in which the various deaths occurred, except Henry's for which no date is given, but which presumably occurred between 1817 and 1836. Presumably, those memorialized are:
       Elizabeth Strong (nee Fairs), abt 1778 to 11 Jan 1812, wife of John Strong
       [...Hi]s Son must be William Strong, abt 1798 to 12 Jun 1812, son of John and Elizabeth
       Henry Strong, August 1819 to November 1819, son of John and Hannah*
       William Fairs, abt 1745 to 5 Feb 1836, father of Elizabeth Fairs
       Anthony Strong, abt 1803 to 6 April 1850, son of John and Elizabeth

*Heworth parish records have young Henry baptized (15 days old) on 22 Aug 1819, and buried (aged 15 weeks) 16 Nov 1819.

Thus, children of John and Elizabeth are buried with children of John and Hannah, indicative that the father is the same John Strong.
We can now account for the births and deaths of all four sons of John Strong and Elizabeth Fairs, baptized in Newburn, Northumberland:
       William Strong, born in 1798 died - on the headstone - in 1817, aged 19 years.
       John Strong, born in 1801 would be Hannah’ stepson in the 1861 England
       Census, and BMD Death Index has:
              John Strong Sep1866 Birkenhead 8a 269 Age:65.
       Anthony Strong, born in 1803 - on the headstone - in 1850, aged 47 years.
       Curiously, the BMD Death Index has no death registration, although the parish
       does have a burial record; according to law, it was illegal to bury someone
       without a death certificate or coroner’s order.
       Joseph Strong, born 1807 is the 1851 Census “Master Steem Boat” in
       Middlesbrough, and BMD Death Index has:
              Joseph Strong Mar1879 Market Drayton 6a 642 age:73
              (where his daughter lived at the time).
Third, while, this in itself is compelling evidence for the family as we have reconstructed it, in addition, we can look back at Robert Strong’s birth registration in Greenock. In this document, the mother of Robert is given as Susannah Strong, formerly Hughes (when we would have expected Jane Strong, formerly hughes) and the informant is Susannah Redhead, listed as Robert’s cousin. Judith is a Redhead family genealogist. She suggested that the informant is Susanna Nurser (1822-1890), wife of William Redhead (1818-1881). From the tree she has researched, William Redhead's mother is Dorothy Elliot, sister of Hannah Elliot, wife of John Strong. Census returns show William and Susanna Redhead living in Greenock around the time of Robert’s birth.

Thus Joseph Strong and William Redhead are first cousins, or rather step-cousins. And, it is in this sense that Susannah Redhead can claim to be Robert Strong’s cousin (she is married to his 1st step-cousin once removed!). This last piece of data corroborates the link between our Joseph Strong, "Master Steem Boat" and the other children of John Strong, Sr. by both Elizabeth Fairs and Hannah Elliot. And it also confirms that this record belongs to our Robert Strong. The substitution of Susannah for Jane as the given name of Robert’s mother is probably a clerical error, and I wonder if Susannah's Middlesbrough accent and the clerk's Glaswegian were mutually confusing!

Wednesday, December 10, 2014

Fog on the Tyne

J. M. W. Turner: Keelmen Heaving in Coals by Night (1835)
Emily Strong (1883-1944) is the great grandmother I never met. Her maiden name passed as a middle to my Grandpa Stuart. Previously on this blog, I have traced her father, Robert Strong (, the youngest son of Joseph Strong; and then back down through Robert's oldest brother, Joseph, to Major-General Sir Kenneth Strong - my 2nd cousin twice removed. Another post remembers Emily's nephew, Robert Maxine Strong, who perished in the sinking of SS Empire Impala in 1943.

Today, and in a series of posts, I turn to Robert's father, Joseph Strong with a reconstruction of his family of origin. My technique, such as it is, involves searching census data for a surname (in this case, Strong), and date of birth around that of the known sibling (in this case, around 1810), and then correlating the individuals discovered in this manner with baptismal (and other) records.

First off, I do now have the birth certificate for Robert Strong (my 2x great grandfather) from Born in Middle or New Parish, Greenock Scotland. The Scottish birth
certificate reads:
       Robert Strong
       1856 July nineteenth 11h PM
       3 Trafalgar Street, Greenock
       father: Joseph Strong, Steamboat Master
       mother: Susannah Strong maiden name Hughes
       reported by: Susannah Redhead Cousin x her mark present [at birth]

Either Jane went by the alternative name of Susannah (attested nowhere else), or there is a clerical error in the record, possibly because Susannah Redhead reported the birth. It does not seem likely to me that our Robert Strong has a different mother to his siblings.The exact manner in which Susannah Redhead and Robert Strong are cousins will be explored later.

And now for siblings of Joseph Strong (my 3x great grandfather), whose 1851 England Census describes as "Master Steem Boat". The most specific reference for a place of birth for Joseph comes from the 1871 England Census with Felling Shore, Durham. Felling is on the south bank of the Tyne near Heworth. Census searches for Strongs born around 1810 in Heworth or Felling found the family of one John Strong, born about 1772 in Newburn, Northumberland, which is near Scotswood.

The 1851 England Census for Commercial Street, Middlesbrough (along the same street as Joseph and Jane Strong) gives:
       John Strong        Head   Mar 79 Steam Boat Owner  Northumberland Newburn
       Hannah Strong   Wife     Mar 58                                 Durham Heworth
       Robert Strong      Son    U     35 Steam Boat Owner Durham Heworth
       William Strong   Son      U     34 Steam Boat Owner Durham Heworth
       Nicholas Strong  Son     Mar  30 Steam Boat Owner Durham Heworth
       Thomas Strong   Son      U    25 Steam Boat Owner Durham Heworth
       Henry Strong      Son      U    21 Steam Boat Owner Durham Heworth
       Mary Ag Strong Daur      U    13                                Yorks Middlesbrough
       Ann Hamilton    Servant U    22 House Servant        Cumberland Carlisle
(Source Citation: Class:HO107; Piece: 2383; Folio: 246; Page: 40; GSU roll: 87061.)
The same year, and also on Commercial Street, Middlesbrough is:
       John Strong            Head  Mar         50 Steam Boat Owner Northumberland Scotswood
       Jane Strong            Wife   Mar         25                                Yorks Osmotherley
       Alister Patterson     Visitor Widower 37 Furniture Broker    Scotland
       Elizabeth Patterson Visitor                5 Scholar                    Scotland
       Jane Thompson      Servant U         17 House Servant         Yorks Middlesbrough
(Source Citation: Class: HO107; Piece: 2383; Folio: 242; Page: 33; GSU roll: 87061.)

So, three households of Strongs associated with steamboats (including our Joseph), making it difficult to resist the temptation that they have family connections. By 1861, while our Joseph Strong is living in Greenock, the other two households are in Birkenhead. The 1861 England Census for 127 Bridge Street has:
       Hannah Strong       Head      Widow  66 Steam Tug Proprietor Durham Heworth
       John Strong            Stepson  Mar      60  Not employed            Northumberland Scotswood
       Robert Strong        Son         Un        44 Steam Tug Proprietor  Durham Heworth
       Hannah Bell          Daughter  Mar     37 Supported by Hannah Strong
                                                                                                          Durham Heworth
       Thomas Strong      Son         Un        36 Steam Tug Proprietor Durham Heworth
       Hannah Akenhead Gd Daugh           16 Supported by Hannah Strong
                                                                                                          Yorkshire Middlesbrough
       Mary Akenhead     Gd Daugh           14 Scholar                       Yorkshire Middlesbrough
       Hannah Bell           Gd Daugh           14 Scholar                       Yorkshire Middlesbrough
       Elizabeth Bell        Gd Daugh             9 Scholar                        Yorkshire Middlesbrough
       Elizabeth Fegan     Servant               37 House Servant            Wales
(Source Citation: Class:RG 9; Piece: 2641; Folio: 131; Page: 59; GSU roll: 543004.)

John Strong, Sr. must have died between the two censuses. The FreeBMD Death Index has:
       John Strong Mar1858 Wirral 8a 331

And this is confirmed by the England and Wales, National Probate Calendar in 1858:
       John Strong                  7 September                                             The Will
                                                    of John Strong formerly of Middlesbrough in
           Effects under L4,000       the County of York and late of 127 Bridge
                                                    -street Birkenhead in the County of Chester
                                                    Steamboat Proprieter deceased who died
                                                    10 March 1858 at Bridge-street aforesaid was
                                                    proved at Chester by the oath of Hannah
                                                    Strong of 127 Bridge-street aforesaid Widow
                                                    the Relict and one of the Executors.

One can imagine that in 1861 Hannah was none too pleased to be supporting the families of two daughters! The presence of step-son, John, Jr. suggests that his father had been previously married. The 1851 census has Hannah twenty-one years younger than her husband, and the 1861 census has her only six years older than this step-son.

While next door at 128 Bridge Street, Birkenhead are:
       Nicholas Strong        Head      Mar 40 Steam Tug Proprietor Durham Heworth
       Maryann Strong       Wife         Mar 39                                    Northumberland Bedlington
       Sarah Strong            Daughter  Un  14 Scholar                       Durham Heworth
       Hannah Strong         Daughter        12 Scholar                       Yorkshire Middlesbrough
       Mary G Strong         Daughter        10 Scholar                        Yorkshire Middlesbrough
       Elizabeth Strong       Daughter         5 Scholar                        Cheshire Birkenhead
       Margarett Strong      Daughter         4                                     Cheshire Birkenhead
       Margaret Colebourn Servant    Un  26 House Servant            Lancashire Liverpool
(Source Citation: Class: RG 9; Piece: 2641; Folio: 131; Page: 59; GSU roll: 543004.)

And, going back to the 1841 England Census on Commercial Street, we have:
       John Strong          60 Ship Owner  N[ot born in the county]
       Hannah Strong     50                      N
       Elizabeth Strong  25                      N
       Robert Strong      25 Engine Man  N
       William Strong    20 Sailor             N
       Hannah Strong    15                       N
       Thomas Strong    15                       N
       Henry Strong       11                       N
       Mary Strong         3                        Y[es, born in the county]
(Source Citation: Class: HO107; Piece: 1258; Book: 3; Civil Parish: Middlesbrough; County:
Yorkshire; Enumeration District: 1; Folio: 22; Page: 39; Line: 15; GSU roll: 464234.)

Here are some birth and baptism data for this family, from England, Births and Christenings, 1538-1975, including a series of baptisms in Heworth, Durham, south of the Tyne, for children of John Strong and Hannah, given here with their respective dates of baptism.
       Elizabeth Strong 11 Sep 1814
       Robert Strong     13 May 1816
       William Strong   26 Oct 1817
       Henry Strong      22 Aug 1819
       Nicholas Strong 15 Oct 1820
       Hannah Strong   13 Jul 1823
       Thomas Strong   25 Sep 1825
       Henry Strong     17 Jan 1830

These are clearly the same family as the 1841 Census above, missing Henry (born 1819) – who must have died before 1830, since they give the name to another child – and Nicholas (born 1820) – who is among them in 1851 – and with the addition of Mary Ag[nes] who was born in Middlesbrough. Her birth certificate gives the name of their mother, Hannah Elliot.
       Mary Agnes Strong BMD Birth Mar1838 Stockton 24 189

Birth Certificate reads:
       March 27th Morning 5 o’clock Middlesbrough/
       Mary Agnes Strong/ Girl/
       John Strong/ Hannah Strong formerly Elliot/
       Steam Boat Owner
       X The Mark of Hannah Strong Mother Middlesbrough/
       March 29th

Mary Agnes Strong was baptized 28 Apr 1838 West Acklam, Yorkshire

Looking for a baptism for the stepson, John Strong, yields a set of four for children of John Strong and Elizabeth Fair(e)s in Newburn, Northumberland, north of the Tyne:
       William Strong   born  1 Feb 1798   bapt. 20 May 1798
       John Strong       born   6 Feb 1801   bapt. 8 Mar 1801
       Anthony Strong  born 30 Apr 1803   bapt. 22 May 1803
       Joseph Strong    born  11 Jun 1807   bapt. 26 Jul 1807

From the Register of Baptisms of the Parish of Newburn, Northumberland:
"Joseph Strong of Scotswood [born] June 11 [baptized] July 16 [1807] 4th Son of John Strong Keelman Native of Ryton Parish by his Wife Elizabeth Faires of St Johns New Castle Tyne"

The John of these baptisms makes a good candidate for John, Hannah’s stepson. And the Joseph of these baptisms makes a good candidate for our Joseph Strong, the “Master Steem Boat” of the 1851 England Census, and father of Robert Strong. There is a marriage record for John Strong and Elizabeth Fairs at Newburn, Northumberland 18 April 1796. Thus, it appears likely that John Strong, husband of Elizabeth Fairs, remarried after her death to Hannah Elliot, along with a move across the Tyne from from Newburn, Northumberland to Heworth, Durham, and eventually to Middlesbrough, Yorkshire.

The Tyne Keelmen loaded coal from the pits into shallow draught boats (called keels) and out to the waiting colliers which would transport the coal by sea, mostly to London. They were paid by the keel-load of about 20 tons, which had to be loaded onto the keel, transported to and unloaded into the collier. This was necessary because the Tyne was too shallow to load colliers from the banks. By the end of the eighteenth century, the use of short piers (or coal staithes) enabled direct loading of coal from the shore to the collier, reducing the available work for the keelmen. The introduction of steam tugs in the nineteenth was yet another blow to the keelmen. It would appear that John and his family followed the trend of industrialization, joining the steam tug business, and moving south to the Tees as increasingly coal was loaded from Middlesbrough.

The fog on the Tyne slowly lifts. Next time, a gravestone...

Friday, December 5, 2014

A Melancholy Suicide

1813 Fashions in a happier day
On the morning of Saturday, February 26th, 1842, William Hardman, a fifty-year-old father of ten, respectable cheesemonger and bacon seller, and resident of Worcester, went for a walk, as he was accustomed to do. His wife of 23 years, Elizabeth, had died a few years before. Of their ten surviving children - an eleventh had died young - seven lived at home, ranging in age from eight to nineteen. William walked a couple of miles out of the city towards the public house (still there) called the Virgin's Tavern along, what is now, Tolladine Road. We do not know exactly what was on his mind as he walked, maybe his loneliness and the responsibilities of his family and trade. Maybe the darkness of the season clouded his mood. However, before reaching the tavern, he stopped. He put a gun to his head, and blew out his brains.

A year ago, I knew of my 4x great grandfather William Hardman only that he was father of John Hardman, Cap'n of the Mizzen Top, and three more children, all by his wife Elizabeth, and all baptized at St Swithin Worcester, England. Earlier this year, I found six more of his children, the names of his parents (James Hardman and Mary Symonds), and siblings who were baptized in Hereford. I discovered much about the family around him, but very little directly about him; even his baptismal record appears mis-spelled as William Hoardman.

Recent communication with Greg McLean, having come across Hardmans on his excellent genealogical website, sent me back into the historical record. The following life history of William Hardman includes the Hereford and Worcester baptisms from England, Select Births and Christenings, 1538-1975, the marriage and Somerset baptisms are from, 1841 England Census through, and the deaths of William and Elizabeth from google searches which found newspaper transcripts.

William Hardman was baptized 23 Jan 1792 at St John the Baptist, Hereford, the fourth child, and third son, of James Hardman and Mary Symonds. By the time he was six years old, one of his younger brothers had died, and three more brothers had been baptized in Hereford.

Our next record of him is his marriage to Elizabeth Willis, dated 15 March 1813 at St John the Baptist, Gloucester. The FreeReg index is not a complete transcript, but it does contain much of the useful information that can be gleaned from the original document. In this case, there are just the two names and a note that the marriage was after banns. As there are no witnesses recorded, perhaps this is the record of banns itself, and the marriage solemnized somewhere else. One or other of the couple must have resided in Gloucester for this to be the case.

A baptism 18 April 1814 at St John the Baptist, Hereford of William, son of William Hardman and Elizabeth is probably their eldest son. This is by no means certain, although a William Hardman of the right age and place of birth is living in Worcester in 1851 and 1861, wife Susan. They must be William Hardman and Susan Mitchell who were married in Worcester 28 Jul 1844. I have sent off for the GRO marriage record to find out more about the father of the groom.

There follow three baptisms of their children at St Mary the Virgin, Bathwick near Bath, Somerset. In each case, the address is Grove Street, and William's occupation is Tailor.
       Mary Hardman  bapt.16 Feb 1816
       Elizabeth Hardman  bapt. 22 May 1818
       Eliza Hardman  bapt. 3 May 1820

Between the last of these baptisms and the end of 1821, the family moved to Frome, Somerset, where there are three more baptisms at St John the Baptist - the entries in England, Select Births and Christenings, 1538-1975 give the church as Holy Trinity, Frome, but St John the Baptist is the parish church and this is shown on the FreeReg index. In all three baptisms the address is given as Cheap Street. In the first two, William is still a tailor; in the third he is a fruiterer, indicating a change of occupation.
       Jane Hardiman [sic]  bapt. 17 Nov 1821
       Ann Symons Hardman  bapt. 28 Apr 1824
       Matilda Hardman  bapt. 27 Mar 1826

On 30 Apr 1826, the burial of Elizabeth Hardman, age 8, is recorded at St John the Baptist, Frome. The father's name is given as John, but the address is Cheap Street. I have no indication of another Hardman family in Frome at this time, so I believe this to be a mis-transciption of Wm., and therefore a record of William's daughter Elizabeth, born in Bathwick, about 1818.

Shortly after this, the family moved again, this time to Worcester, where William and Elizabeth had four more children baptized at St Swithin.
       James Hardman  bapt. 30 Nov 1827
       Thomas Hardman  bapt. 11 Oct 1829
       John Hardman  bapt. 5 Sep 1831
       Elizabeth Hardman  bapt. 9 Aug 1833

Elizabeth Frances Hardman married 1. John Green Winter in London 1850, describing her father as William Hardman, Provision Mercht., and 2. Alexander McDougall in Glasgow 1887, describing her parents as William Hardman, General Merchant, and Elizabeth Hardman ms Willis.

John Hardman's date of birth on his service record is 13 Aug 1831. On the certificate of his 1865 marriage to Amelia Hatt, his father is described as William Hardman, Provision Dealer.

Ann Symons (also known as Simmonds) Hardman made a declaration of identity in Port Adelaide, New South Wales 1887, stating that her parents were William Hardman, Provisions Merchant, and Elizabeth his wife (formerly Willis). She listed her siblings as: William, Mary, Elizabeth, Jane, herself, Matilda, James, Thomas, John, and Eliza. Interestingly she has the siblings who survived childhood in birth order, except for switching Elizabeth and Eliza, although she did indeed have an older sister Elizabeth who had died as a child when Ann was two years old.

A Provision Merchant or Dealer is a food seller, so William appears to have diversified from selling fruit to selling food. Of his time in Worcester, Pigott's Directory lists him by 1835 as Cheesemonger and Bacon Dealer of the Shambles, Worcester. His oldest son at this time was 21 years old, and he had nine others between the ages of nineteen and two years.

Tragedy struck on 12 April 1836, when his wife died. This is reported in the Worcester Journal of 21 April that year among the deaths:
       April 12 aged 41 Elizabeth, wife of Mr. William Hardman, Shambles,
       Worcester; lamented by her family, and much respected by all who
       knew her.

The family continued to live in the Shambles, where we find them in the 1841 England Census. The indexes them as "Harriman", which is why I hadn't found them sooner. My strategy to find the census return for the Shambles, Worcester was to make a google search for "1841 Census Shambles Worcester" (without quotes). This found a family history page with the name and age of another individual living in the Shambles, who I then found in the 1841 England Census enumerator books using the search engine. Having found this return, I went household by household through the neighborhood until I found the Hardmans:
       William Hardman  45  Bacon Factor  N[ot born in Worcs.]
       Jane           Do        15                         N
       Ann           Do        15                         N
       Matilda     Do         14                        N
       James        Do        13                         Y[es born in Worcs.]
       Thomas    Do         11                         Y
       John          Do          9                         Y
       Elizth        Do         7                          Y

Missing are William, Mary and Eliza. The latter turns up married in the next household, the evidence for which we will see:
       Stephen Wilks      20   Carpenter      Y
       Eliza        Do        20                         N

Their marriage is indexed in FreeBMD Marriages:
       Stephen Wilks and Eliza Hardman  Dec(Q4) 1840 Droitwich 18 299

I had found the newspaper article reporting Elizabeth's death among the results of a google search for "William Hardman Shambles" without quotes. The result was a computer generated transcript and a link to a pay to view the original image. The following came from a similar source with slightly different search terms. The Worcester Guardian 5 Mar 1842 carried the following death notice:
       Feb 26, aged 50, Mr. William Hardman, of the Shambles, in this city

This would correspond to the FreeBMD Death Index:
       William Hardman  Mar(Q1) 1842 Droitwich 18 226

In the case of the Worcester Guardian, the computer generated transcript was very long, and I had to read through many articles before I came to the death notices (which is what the search had picked up). However, in perusing the Worcester news of March 1842, I found a detailed description of William Hardman's last moments:

       MELANCHOLY SUICIDE — On Saturday morning, about nine o'clock,
       Mr. Hardman, a bacon and cheese factor, & c., residing in the Shambles,
       shot himself with a gun, near Porte Fields Farm, in the parish of Claines,
       about two miles from this city. Deceased was in his 51st year, and has left 
       a numerous family. An inquest was held the same evening by Mr. Hughes,
       at the Virgin's Tavern, when the following evidence was adduced:
       — Thomas Bennett, of Claines, labourer: I was loading thorns in a field of
       Mr. Edward Tills on Saturday morning, a little before nine o'clock. I saw
       the deceased standing in the road between Worcester and the Virgin's Tavern.
       I did not see where the deceased came from. The first I saw of him, he was
       standing in the road. I did not perceive that he was doing anything, nor did I
       see anything in his hand. I saw him suddenly fall, and at the same time heard
       the report of a gun. I saw the smoke from the gun when deceased fell. No one
       was near him at the time. I afterwards went to him. I found him lying on the
       side of the road; the gun was about two yards from him — it was a single-
       barrel gun. The deceased's head was blown to pieces, and his brains about the
       road. — William Hudson: I keep the turnpike-gate leading from Worcester
       to the Virgin's Tavern. I heard the alarm and went up. I found the deceased as
       described by the last witness. Mr. E. Corles, of Worcester, solicitor: I was at
       Mr. T. Brampton's on business, this morning. On ascending the hill near
       Jones's farm, I heard a gun; I continued up the road, and found the deceased
       as already described. — Mr. Ledbrook, of Worcester, surgeon: I saw the
       deceased this morning. I found a circular wound above the ear — a gun-shot
       wound — which had carried away the whole substance of the brain. The
       cranium was shattered all to pieces; he must have died instantly. I have no
       doubt the deceased shot himself, regarding the nature of the wound, and the
       gun being found near him. — Stephen Wilks, of the Shambles, joiner: The
       deceased was my father-in-law. I saw him yesterday. He was quite well. The
       deceased was used to go out with a gun, hedge-popping. I am not aware of
       anything to have caused the deceased to have destroyed himself. — This was
       the whole of the evidence; and the Jury returned a verdict "That the deceased
       shot himself, being at the time of unsound mind." — The unfortunate deceased
       was buried on Tuesday afternoon at St. Helen's Church; and an immense
       concourse of spectators assembled on the occasion.

And there we leave him to rest.

Thursday, December 4, 2014

Nieces and Nephews

Four months interlude, but picking up where I left us in August, and wishing all my readers a Happy Advent!

In this post I propose to examine the nieces and nephews named in the wills of William Dunrich (died 1794) and his widow, Elizabeth (nee Gaich or Geach, died 1802). Transcripts of each of these wills are in the previous post on Dunrich Babbage Connections. William and Elizabeth appear to have had no children of their own, but were generous to their nephews and nieces.

I have no information on siblings of Elizabeth Dundrich, and all those named by the Dundriches are children of William's siblings. The Buckland Monachorum baptisms reported in England, Births and Christenings, 1538-1975 have, in addition to William (1722), Robert (1725 died in infancy 1726), John (born 1727), and Elizabeth (born 1730).

Of the survivors, England, Marriages, 1538-1973 has:
       John Dundridge and Mary Blake 16 Apr 1755 Antony Cornwall

And as reported in the previous post, England, Select Plymouth and West Devon, Parish Registers, 1538-1912 has:
       Elizabeth Dundridge and John Babidge 1757 in Devon

England, Select Births and Christenings, 1538-1975 have the following baptisms for children of John Dundridge and Mary in Antony, Cornwall:
       Mary Dundridge  16 Apr 1757
       William Dundridge  12 Sep 1760
       Elisabeth Dundridge 11 Dec 1762
       Ann Dundridge  30 Jan 1769

Of these, Mary Dundridge must have married Pascho Pollard, as we find the following baptisms indexed in England, Select births and Christenings, 1538-1975 of parents Pascho (or Pascoe) Pollard and Mary in Stoke Damerel, Devon:
       Thomas Pollard  5 Jan 1779
       Pascho Pollard   14 Jun 1780
       John Dundrich Pollard  16 May 1781
Mary and her husband are both mentioned in the wills.

I have no further record for William Dundridge. He is not mentioned in the wills, nor any children of his, and presumably he died childless before 1794.

Elisabeth Dundridge married Ebenezer Fisher. Pallot's Marriage Index for England, 1780-1837 records Esth Dunrick and Ebenezer Fisher Esq. married by license at St Pancras, Exeter in 1795, matching her maiden name in her uncle's will (made in 1792), and married name in her aunt's (1801). The corresponding index in England, Select Marriages, 1538-1975 has:
       Elizabeth Dunrich and Ebenezer Fisher St Pancras Exeter 10 Sep 1795.

Pallot's Index reports Fisher as "Lt His Maj R.N.", while Commissioned Sea Officers of the Royal Navy, 1660-1815 (also from have Ebenezer Fisher commissioned Lieutentant 13 Nov 1790.

Ann Dundridge was married to Abraham Roberts in 1792, but had died by 1801, leaving children. They were presumably in the care of her uncle and aunt, since, when the latter died, she passed on their care to Pascho and Mary Pollard. The most likely fate of the Robertses is picked up in this excellent website. Abraham and Ann moved to London, where his ropemaking business failed. Ann probably died in 1801 (there is a plausible burial 30 May 1801 at St John, Horsleydown), while at the time Elizabeth Dundrich was making her will, Abraham was a debtor in the King's Bench Prison. He was discharged in 1804, but likely died soon after, a plausible burial being 1 Feb 1806 at St. George the Martyr, Southwark.

The other survivor of the children of Robert and Margaret Dunrich, baptized in Buckland Monachorum, is Elizabeth Dunrich, who married John Babbage. As previously reported, I find baptisms in Chudleigh for John Babbage (1760) and Thomas (1763) Babbage, children of John and Elizabeth, but not William. However, both parents had likely died by 1768, in which year their (presumably their) John and William were sent by the parish of Chudleigh as apprentices to John and William Dunrich respectively.

William Dunrich in his will (1792) mentions his nephews Willm and John Bavage, while Elizabeth Dunrich mentions (1801) cousins Elizabeth and William Dundridge Babbage, children of William Babbage, Hatchelor, deceased and Rosamond Sampson. It seems likely that Willm Bavage is William Babbage, Hatchelor, and the refernce to cousins is intended loosely to mean relatives - they would in fact be second or grand nephew and niece. I have already described the above William Dundridge Babbage (my 4x great grandfather), and traced their marriage to the Peterkens.

Neither John Bavage (or Babbage) nor his family is not mentioned in Elizabeth's will. And I turn to these now to establish the connection between Babbage and Bavage. England, Select Marriages, 1538-1975 has:
       John Babbidge and Catherine Avery 5 Jun 1781 Stoke Damerel

They appear to have moved across Tor Point to Maker, Cornwall. Children of John Babbage/Babage and Catherine found in England, Select Births and Christenings, 1538-1975 are:
       John Babbage  9 Sep 1781  Stoke Damerel, Devon
       Willm Dundredge Babbage  21 May 1786  Maker, Cornwall
       Jenefer Babbage  21 May 1786  Maker, Cornwall  (twins or a deferred baptism?)
       Samuel Henry Avery Babage  15 Jan 1792  Maker, Cornwall
       George Lobb Babage  3 May 1795  Stoke Damerel, Devon
       Samuel Babbage  6 Jun 1797  Stoke, Damerel, Devon
       Mary Ann Babbage  21 Jan 1800  Stoke Damerel, Devon

Among these siblings, we find the spelling Bavage and Bavidge on later records. England Select Marriages, 1537-1970 has:
       Jenifer Bavage and William Goss  18 Nov 1802  Stoke Damerel, Devon

Thus among baptisms at the Morice Street Wesleyan Chapel in Stoke Damerel (England & Wales, Non-Conformist and Non-Parochial Registers, 1567-1970) are the following children of William and Mary Bavage/Bevdge/Bavege:
       Mary Dundridge Bavage born 26 Feb 1822  bapt. 1 Apr 1822
       Rosamond Caroline Bevdge  born 5 Jun 1824  bapt. 4 Oct 1824
       Jane Elizabeth Dundridge Bavege  born 17 May 1827  bapt. 11 Jun 1827

The treesandstars website has a marriage for William Dundridge Babbage and Mary Vorco.

Rosamond and Jane Bavage, aged 15 and 12 respectively, are found together in Barrack Street, Devonport in the 1841 England Census, each with the occupation "Plain Work Girl". Their mother had just died, the presumed FreeBMD Death Index being:
       Mary Bavage Jun1841 Stoke Damerel 9 261

Pallot's Marriage Index for England, 1780-1837 has:
       John Babage and Grace Rodda  1800  Paul, Cornwall

The following are from England, Births and Christenings, 1583-1975, baptized in Paul, Cornwall with parents John Bavage/Babage/Babbage and Grace:
       John Every Babage  23 Nov 1800
       James Avary Babbage  2 Dec 1810
       Samuel Avery Bavage  5 Mar 1817
Note the variant transcipts for Avery, their grandmother's maiden name.

Other children recorded to this couple, include: Mary (1803), Mary (1804), Henry Ralph (1808), William Avery (1814) and Grace (1820). They started out in Paul, Cornwall, and by the 1830s were in Northumberland where John and Grace both died, and many of their children raised their families.
       FreeBMD Death Index Grace Bavidge Sep1851 Tynemouth 25 311
       FreeBMD Death Index John Bavidge Dec1860 Tynemouth 10b 88

Here ends the two-part digression to document the nephews and nieces named in the Dunrich wills.

Thursday, August 7, 2014

Dunrich Babbage Connections

What follows is a reconstruction of a small part of the Dunrich and Babbage families in the West Country of Devon and Cornwall in the 18th century. Of note, the names had not at the point established a standard spelling. You'll find, if you say Dun-rich quickly, that a "D" sound inserts itself between the syllables! I have seen Dunrich, Dundrich and Dundridge on the one part, and Babbage, Babbidge, Bobbidge, Babbich and even Bavage and Bavidge on the other.

A monument in Saints Peter and Paul, Sheviock, Cornwall is recorded by Joseph Polsue, A Complete Parochial History of the County of Cornwall, Vol. IV, p.147 (1872).

       Near this place are deposited the remains of William Dunrich, late of Lescawn
       in this parish, who died February 3, 1794; in the 75 year of his age. Also of
       Elizabeth Dunrich, who died 26 February 1802; aged 83 years.

For each of them a Last Will and Testament is preserved among the records of the Prerogative Court of Canterbury Wills, 1384-1858, which I have viewed through The legal caligraphy takes some getting used to. I present here my transcripts of each of them in turn. First, the will of William Dunrich (1719-94). I have highlighted the names of William's nephews and nieces, including two Bavage references, which are spelling variants of Babbage. Apart from the phonetic similarity of "B" and "V", I will present some genalogical evidence in a later post.

       In the Name of God Amen I William Dunrich of the Parish of Sheviock in the
       County of Cornwall Yeoman being in Health of Body & of Sound and disposing
       memory (blessed be God) Do this fifth day of June in the year of our Lord one
       thousand seven hundred and ninety two make publish & declare this my last Will
       & Testament in manner following (that is to say) First I give unto my niece Mary
       Pollard Wife of Pascho Pollard of St. Budeaux in the County of Devon Yeoman
       the sum of Sixty pounds of lawful money of Great Britain Also I give and
       bequeath unto my niece Elizabeth Dunrich the sum of Fifty pounds Also I give
       & bequeath unto my other niece Ann Roberts Wife of Abraham Roberts Junr.
       The sum of Fifty pounds Also I give & bequeath unto my nephew Willm Bavage
       the sum of Fifty pounds All which before mentioned Legacies shall be paid
       within Six months after my decease Also I give & bequeath unto such children
       of my nephew John Bavage as may be living at my decease the sum of Twenty
       Pounds to be equally divided amongst them by my executrix when and as she may
       think most proper Also I give and bequeath unto Thomas Littleton Esqr. of Trowen
       in the County of Cornwall our gold Ring Also all the rest & residue of my Goods
       Chattels & Effects whatsoever I give devise & bequeath unto my Beloved Wife
       Elizabeth Dunrich and I make & ordain this my said Wife my sole Executrix of this
       my last Will and Testament In Trust for the intents and purposes beforementioned
       not in the least doubting but that she will fulfill the same In Witness whereof I the
       said William Dunrich have hereunto sett my hand & seal the day and year first
       above written – William Dunrich – Signed Sealed and Delivered by the said
       William Dunrich as and for his last Will and Testament in the presence of us who
       were present at the Signing & sealing/thereof – Henry Rott Spook – William Roberts.

       This Will was proved at London the twenty eighth day of May in the Year of our
       Lord One thousand seven hundred and ninety five before The right Honble. Sir
       William Wynn Knight Doctor of Laws Master Keeper or Commissary of the
       Prerogative Court of Canterbury lawfully constituted by the Oath of Elizabeth
       Dunrich Widow the Relict of the Deceased and Sole Executrix named in the Will
       to whom Administration was granted of all and singular the Goods Chattels and
       Credits of the Deceased having been first Sworn duly to Administer by Commission

 Before I reconstruct the family, from this and other records, here is the will of his widow, Elizabeth Dunrich (1719-1802). Parts of this, I posted previously in relation to William Babbage, Son of a Hatchelor.

       In the Name of God Amen I Elizabeth Dunrich of the Parish of Sheviock in
       the County of Cornwall Widow being in perfect health and of sound mind
       memory and understanding thanks be given to God calling to mind the mortality
       of my body and knowing that it is appointed for all men once to die Do make
       and ordain this to be my last Will and Testament in manner and form Following
       (that is to say) Principally and First of all I commend my Soul into the hands of
       of Almighty God that gave it and my body to the Earth to be buried in a decent
       Christian like manner at the Discretion of my Executrixes hereinafter mentioned
       nothing doubting but at the General Resurrection I shall receive the same again
       by the Almighty Power of God and as touching such worldly Estate where with
       it hath pleased God to bless me in this life I give devise and bequeath the same in
       manner Following that is to say First I desire that all my just Debts and Funeral
       expenses may be paid as soon as possible after my death Item I give and bequeath
       to my Cousin Elizabeth Babbage and William Dunrich Babbage Son and Daughter
       of William Babbage late of the town of Plymouth Dock in the parish of Damarell
       in the County of Devon Hatchelor deceased the sum of two hundred and Fifty
       Pounds apiece to each of them of lawful money of Great Britain to be paid at the
       end of Six months next after the day of my Death and in Case either of them shall
       die before me that then and in such case I do give and bequeath to the Survivor of
       them the sum of Five hundred pounds of lawful money of Great Britain to be paid
       to the said Survivor at the End of Six months next after the day of my Death Item
       I give and bequeath to all the children of my Niece Ann Roberts Deceased the Sum
       of Five hundred Pounds of lawful money of Great Britain to be equally Divided
       amongst them share and share alike and I do hereby nominate and appoint Paschoe
       Pollard of the Parish of Saint Budeaux in the County of Devon Gentleman to be
       Guardian and Trustee over them and do will and desire that he will lay out such
       part thereof as he may think proper for the Education livelihood and Maintenance
       of them or either of them until they shall successively attain the age of twenty one
       years old and then to pay the residue and remainder of his or her part and portion
       of the said legacy into his or her own hands and if either of them shall happen to
       die before he or she shall attain to the age of twenty one years then the residue and
       remainder of such Child or Children’s Legacy so dying shall be equally Divided
       amongst the Survivors of them share and share alike Item I give and bequeath to
       my Niece Elizabeth Fisher all my Table China consisting of Eleven blue and white
       China Dishes and Eighteen Plates my Diamond Ring and Earrings and my Silver
       Sauce boats Item I give and bequeath to my Niece Mary Pollard my Silver Coffee
       pot Item I give and bequeath to my Niece Elizabeth Fisher all my Table china
       consisting of Eleven blue and white China Dishes and Eighteen Plates my
       Diamond Ring and Earrings and my Silver Sauce Boats Item I give and bequeath
       to my Niece Mary Pollard my Silver Coffee pot Item I give and bequeath to
       Rosamond Sampson the mother of the above named Elizabeth Babbage and
       William Dunrich Babbage my Brown Chintz Gown black quilted petticote and
       running sprigd Apron Item I give and bequeath to Miss Betty Ellis of the Parish
       of Antony in the County of Cornwall the Sum of Ten Pounds of lawful money of
       Great Britain Item I give and bequeath to Ann Martin Wife of William Martin of
       the said Parish of Sheviock the sum of Two Guineas Item I give and bequeath to
       William Symons my Servant the sum of Five Guineas if he is living with me at the
       time of my Death item I give and bequeath to each and every of my Servants that
       shall be living with me at the time of my Death asuit of Mourning to each and

       every of them Item I give and bequeath to the Poor of the said parish of Sheviock
       the Sum of Five Pounds to be given to them in Bread at the Church on the first
       Five Several Sundays that shall first and next happen after my Death item I give
       and bequeath to Mistress Ann Roberts Wife of the Reverend Doctor Bryan Roberts
       and to her Sister Elizabeth Bennett Wife of the Reverend John Bennett the Sum of
       three Pounds each to buy amourning Ring Item I give and bequeath to my Servant
       John Westrott the Sum of four Guineas Item I give and bequeath to my Servant
       Mary Hoskon the Sum of two Guineas all the rest residue and remainder of my
       Lands Tenements Goods Chattels Ready money and Sureties for money Book
       Debts and personal Estate whatsoever that I may Die possessed of or in any wise
       Entitled unto after payment of my Just Debts and Legacies herein before given
       and bequeathed I do hereby give Devise and bequeath to my said two Nieces
       Mary Pollard and Elizabeth Fisher herein before named therin Executors
       Administrators and assigns to be equally Divided amongst them share and share
       alike and I do hereby Constitute Nominate and appoint the said Mary Pollard and
       Elizabeth Fisher joint Executrixes of this my last Will and Testament and I do
       hereby revoke make void and disannul all and every Former and other Will or
       Wills and Testaments by me at any time heretofore made ratifying and Confirming
       this and no other to be my last Will and Testament In Witness whereof I the said
       Elizabeth Dunrich have to this my last Will and Testament written on two sheets
       of Paper to the First Set my hand and to this last my hand and Seal this Eighteenth
       day of July in the year of Our Lord One thousand Eight hundred and one
       #E: Dunrich Signed Sealed and Published and Declared by the said Testatrix
       Elizabeth Dunrich to be her last Will and Testament who at her request and in her
       presence and in the presence of each other (after the Interlineation of the words
       (to wit) lay out between the twenty third and twenty Fourth Fourth Lines of the
       first Sheet being first made) have subscribed our names as witnesses hereto
       # Richard Serpill #Jane Geard #James Bligh

       This Will was proved at London the Seventh Day of April in the year of Our Lord

       Onethousand Eight hundred and two before the Right Honorable Sir William Wynn
       Knight Doctor of Laws Master Keeper or Commissary of the Prerogative Court of
       Canterbury lawfully constituted by the oaths of Mary Pollard (Wife of Pascho
       Pollard) and Elizabeth Fisher (Wife of Ebenezer Fisher) the Executrixes named in
       the said Will to whom Administration was granted of all and singular the Goods
       Chattels and Credits of the said Deceased having been first sworn by Commission
       Duly to Administer.

I have made highlights in this transcript as well for the sake of comparison with the first.

The Dunrich's named nieces are: Elizabeth Dunrich in 1792, who must have become Elizabeth Fisher by 1801; Mary Pollard (wife of Pascho Pollard); and Ann Roberts, alive in 1792, but deceased by 1801, whose children are entrusted to the guardianship of their uncle Pascho. The Dunrich's named nephews are John Bavage 1792, who is not mentioned in 1801; and Willm Bavage of 1792 who must be the William Babbage Hatchelor deceased of 1801.

These wills are not the only connections between the names of Babbage and Dunrich. England, Select Plymouth and West Devon Marriages, 1538-1912 has John Babidge and Elizabeth Dundridge in married 1757. A bit of rooting around online reveals that this marriage was solemnized in St Budeaux, just to the north of Plymouth. I am especially indebted to Carolyn Mason in New Zealand whose treesandstars website provided the genealogical framework for what follows.

Also connecting Babbage and Dundridge, the following are held at the Devon Record Office:
        3009A-99/PO18/27 1768
               John Babbage apprenticed to John Dundridge of Anthony, Cornwall

        3009A-99/PO18/31 1768
               William Babbage apprenticed to William Dundridge of Sheviock, Cornwall

The first of these is an indenture dated 28 October 1768 by which responsibility for the maintenance of John Babbage is transferred from the Overseers of the Poor of the Parish of Chudleigh, Devon to John Dundridge, who was to train him in "good husbandry work" up to the age of twentyfour years. I have not seen the second of these records, which I suspect is a similar document, but for William Babbage (the future hatchelor) to be apprenticed to William Dundridge of Sheviock. That is, William Dunrich, who mentions his nephews John and William Bavage in his will. It would seem most likely that William Dunrich (Dundridge) of Sheviock, Devon is the brother of John Dundridge of Anthony, Cornwall, and of Elizabeth Dundridge, wife of John Babage who had married in St Budeaux.

The Chudleigh parish records as transcribed by Carol Gertner and Gary Liddell have these baptisms (perhaps William was baptized at St Budeaux):
       2 May 1760 John, son of John and Elizabeth Babbage
       1 Dec 1763 born: 26 Nov 1763 Thomas, son of John and Elizabeth Babbidge
The same set of records from Chudleigh parish registers has Elizabeth Babbidge buried 3 June 1765. As to the fate of Thomas, I have no record, but it seems likely that William and John were orphans at this point. In 1768, John Babbage is described on the indenture as a "poor child of the said parish". Treesandstars notes that Elizabeth Babbage was already in receipt of parish relief in 1762, receiving an extra 10s when Thomas was born. One John Babbage of an invalid regiment is buried in St Saviour, Dartmouth on 21 Jun 1763, and he may well be their father.

As to the birth of John Babbage, future husband of Elizabeth Dundridge (if correct, these are my 6x great grandparents), the most likely candidate from Chudleigh parish records and his brothers are:
       15 Mar 1727/8 George son of George and Elizabeth Bobbidge
              Buried 11 Apr 1728  George son of George Bobbidge
        4 Feb 1728/9 George son of George and Elizabeth Bobbidge
        9 Feb 1731/2 John son of George and Elizabeth Bobbidge
       21 Feb 1733/4 Thomas son of George and Elizabeth Babbidge
       24 Sep 1736    James son of George and Elizabeth Babbidge
Looking or Elizabeth Dunrich and her brothers, we find the following are baptized at Buckland Monachorum, Devon according to England, Births and Christenings, 1538-1975:
       William    17 Mar 1722 son of Robert and Margaret Dunrich
       Robert      11 Apr 1725 son of Robert and Margeret Dunrich
              Buried 11 Dec 1726
       John          5 Jun 1727 son of Robert and Margaret Dunrich
       Elizabeth 20 Sep 1730 son of Robert and Margaret Dunrich

If we are correct, each of these Dunrich children moved away from Buckland Monachorum: William to Sheviock, Cornwall; John to Antony, Cornwall; and Elizabeth to Chudleigh, Devon. George and Elizabeth Babbidge/Bobbidge, and Robert and Margaret Dunrich are my 7x great grandparents.

There are still questions about all this. Can we be sure that Bavage and Babbage are the same? What of the "cousins" in Elizabeth will? The next post will examine the data for the nephews and nieces of William and Elizabeth Dunrich of Sheviock, Cornwall, and hopefully answer questions like these.