Wednesday, October 21, 2015

Youngs and Denoons

Old Toll Booth, Edinburgh 1811

In the previous post, I followed the ancestry of Jemima Jessie Foggo, first wife of James Denoon Young (my 3xgreat grandfather) back to Niel Gow. Now I return to my direct line through James Denoon Young himself.

This is material I've been sitting on for a while. More than two years ago (wow!), a correspondent by the username CasparV directed me to a possible birth record for James Denoon Young (and also two of his sisters). At the time I wasn’t convinced, but hadn’t ruled them out either. Now I am certain that this is just such a record, thanks also to an archaeologists from Scotland who sent me a transcript of the original document, and subsequently an image. So thanks to both for steering me in the right direction.

Scotland, Births and Baptisms is an index compiled from various sources, including microfilm of the original documents. The names of the parents in this record are given as James Young and Catherine Dinoon, but there is always the possibility of the original document containing more information than the index. The original document ( - OPR Births 685/03 0110 0356) consists of the certification of the births of three children of the Revd. James Young and his wife Catherine Dinoon (my 4xgreat grandparents). Unusually, the parents are not the ones attesting to the births, but the mother's grandfather and brother-in-law. As such, it has good deal more information than the index itself. Here is a transcript:

                                                 21st [April 1813]
              Revd James Young Edinr and Catherine Dinoon his
              Spouse had a Daughter Born the 30th of November 
              1809 named Mary.
              The said Parents had a Son Born the 16th of May 
              1811 named James.
              The said Parents had a Daughter Born the 11th of 
              December 1812 named Catherine. The above 
              Births are Certified by Daniel Dinoon Shipmaster 
              in Leith, Father to Mrs. Young, and Christian Rey-
              mer, Mercht. Foot of Leith walk, her Brother in law.

So, three birth records for the price of one, being those of Maria Denoon Young (later Peddie), James Denoon Young (my 3xgt grandfather), and Catherine Denoon Young (later Ponsonby, and then Smith). I wonder why the parents hadn't registered the older two earlier.

So, what convinced me? Having become accustomed to the imprecision of so many (especially pre-1837) documents, I wonder now why I was so cautious! However, there is additional information in the transcript, not present in the index, plus further information I discovered after I first received the tip, for which thanks are due to distant cousins in Belgium.

First, the occupational data for the father of James Denoon Young from other sources shows he was an ordained minister, and that after the Great Disruption of 1843, he joined the Free Church of Scotland. I have never been able to find him in any of the church histories, and this may be due to the fact that he never was the minister of a church. Family recollections refer to him as a "stickit minister". As part of the process of finding a pulpit, presumably after ordination, the ministerial candidate had to preach a sermon, and some were found to be unable to do so effectively - the sermon "stickit" in their throat, so to speak. This didn't preclude gifts in other areas of ministry - Revd. James Young wrote a whole volume on the Book of Revelation, for example - but they would not be the senior minister in a parish. Joseph Ebenezer Cupples, brother-in-law to Charles Denoon Young, writes in his genealogical biography (Cupples, JE, The Cupples Family: A Record and Family Memorial [Malden, MA 1887]) that the Revd. James Young was a Scottish Presbyterian minister in England. In any case, my prior information had the father of James Denoon Young as the Revd. James Young, and here the father appears on this birth record.

Second, there are many records for Catherine's father Daniel (or Donald, its Gaelic equivalent) Denoon, shipmaster of Leith, and no other for Dinoon, suggesting that Dinoon is merely an odd spelling of Denoon on this document, and not a distinct last name. The Edinburgh Advertiser during the 1780s and 90s mentions Donald Denoon frequently in connection with shipping from Leith to London; his ships are named: The Friendship, The Star, The Jemima, and the Minerva. Subsequently I have received from cousins in Belgium, the scan of a letter passed down through the family of Catherine Denoon Thomson from her cousin James Arthur Young, written in 1913. In the letter James Arthur Young mentions their common great grandfather Denoon as Shipmaster of Leith, who fortunes declined due to the disruption to trade caused by the French Revolutionary Wars.

The brother-in-law turns out to be Christian Reymert, who married Janet (or Jessie) Denoon, daughter of Donald Denoon. Christian Reymert was Norwegian, and the couple moved to Norway. Their son, James Denoon Reymert, emigrated to the USA, and became editor of the first Norwegian language newspaper in the country. Before he emigrated, he spent time in Edinburgh, where he lived under the care of his uncle, the Revd. James Young. Note that the Revd. James Young and Catherine Denoon name a child Jessie Sinclair Denoon Young, who later married David Purdie Thomson. They are the parents of Catherine Denoon Thomson noted above.

Likewise, the problems with the ages are small compared with documents I've found for other people. Of the three children of the birth certification, here is a comparison between ages on documents and their "correct" age, given their certified date of birth.

Ages on documentation for Maria Denoon Young or Peddie (only on this birth certification is she known as Mary; elsewhere as Maria):
          Date of birth given as 30 November 1809
          Census 1841 Age 30 (i.e. 30-34) should be 31
          Census 1851 Age 41 should be 41
          Census 1861 Age 50 should be 51
          Census 1871 Age 61 should be 61
          Census 1881 Age 70 should be 71
          Census 1891 Age 80 should be 81
          Age at death on 23 October 1893 given as 78-80, should be 83

Ages on documentation for James Denoon Young:
          Date of birth given as 16 May 1811
          Census 1841 Age 30 (i.e. 30-34) should be 30
          Census 1851 Age 38 should be 39
          Census Age 48 should be 49
          Age at death on 19 April 1868 given as 55, should be 56

Ages on documentation for Catherine Denoon Young or Ponsonby:
          Date of birth given as 11 December 1812
          Census 1841 Age 25 (i.e. 25-29) should be 28
          Census 1851 Age 34 should be 38

And this information matches the family pedigree produced around 1890, and passed on through James Arthur Young to Catherine Denoon Thomson and her descendants. The pedigree names as children of the Revd. James Young and Catherine Denoon: James Denoon, William Denoon, Charles Denoon, Catherine D, Jessie and Maria. This is the order on the document, but not their birth order, which is: Maria, James, Catherine, William, Jessie and Charles.

This pedigree also claims that the Revd. James Young's parents are James Young and Euphemia Craigh of Torryburn, Fifeshire. If so, the records of their marriage must be these two. First, from Falkirk, Stirlingshire, marriage banns for:

       Euphan Mcrach and James Young on 24 Jun 1774

And in Torryburn:

       Euphame Mccraich and James Young on 25 Jun 1774

The 1851 Scotland Census gives Falkirk, Stirlingshire as the place of birth for the Revd. James Young. And, while I have not found a baptism for the future Revd. James Young, I have this one from Scotland, Births and Baptisms for a presumed brother of his:
       John Young son of James Young and Eupham Mcreach on 8 Mar 1778 in Falkirk

The "Craigh" of the pedigree is presumably the Mccreach/Mccraich/Mcrach of these records. This would make sense if the pedigree passed down orally. Also in Torryburn are the following baptisms, the first, possibly for the future wife of James Young:
       Euphame Mcraich daughter of William Mcraich and Margaret Russel 29 Aug 1748
       Agnes Mccraich daughter of William Mccraich and Margaret Russel 15 Feb 1751

Prior to that on 13 May 1748 at Torryburn is the marriage of:
       William Mccraich and Margaret Russel

Interestingly, the family pedigree has Margaret Russel as the paternal grandmother of Revd. James Young. While the name is not uncommon, it would be curious if he had two grandmothers of the same name. More likely in my opinion, I wonder if the facts have been mis-remembered, and it is this maternal grandmother, Margaret Russel to whom the pedigree name really belongs.

Next up: continuing with Catherine Denoon and  the maternal lineage of James Denoon Young.

Thursday, October 15, 2015

Famous Fiddler Connection

Niel Gow by Sir Henry Raeburn

As a genealogist, I enjoy moving beyond immediate family to potentially interesting in-laws, step-cousins and first, second or third spouses. I'm driven by the piecing together of clues and the building of family stories. So, I'll start with the spoiler that Niel Gow (1727-1807), the famous Scottish folk composer and musician, is not directly related to me. This post may, however, be of personal interest to some of my distant step-cousins descended from James Denoon Young (1811-1868), civil engineer and ironmonger (my 3x great grandfather) and his first wife Jemima Jessie Foggo, who died sometime before 1851. We first met this family in November 2012. James Denoon Young remarried Charlotte Taylor (1826-1890), from which marriage I am descended. Here I will lay out the documentation for the fortunes of his first marriage, followed by information on the Gow-Foggo connection.

Scotland, Select Marriages has James D Young and Jemima J Foggo married on 10 July 1837 at Perth, Perthshire, Scotland. James had lived in Perth since at least the year before when J D Young ironmonger was assessed at 2s 6d in the Valuation Rolls. The following four children of this marriage are to be found in Scotland, Births and Baptisms also in Perth:

      Jemima Young                       born 17 Feb 1840
      Catherine Denoon Young      born 31 Oct 1841
      Ann Walker Young                 born 20 May 1843, baptized 6 Jul 1843
      James Denoon Young            born 12 Mar 1845

In the 1841 Scotland Census at 7 High Street, Perth, Scotland, we find:

      James Denoon Young  Head   30 Ironmonger
      Jemima Jessie Young  Wife     20
      Jemima Young             Daur     1
            Helen Dewar (60) Charlotte Murie (15) are F.S. [i.e family servants]

Jemima Jessie Foggo’s death is fixed between March 1845 (the birth of the youngest recorded child) and March 1851 (James Denoon Young, Sr. is listed as a widower in the 1851 England Census), although I have found no burial record for her. However, I can follow each of the children through to their deaths.

Ann Walker Young appears in no subsequent census, and, indeed, Perth, Scotland, Burial Records have Ann Young, age 3 who died 25 Mar 1846, and was buried in Greyfriars Cemetery, father James D Young, Ironmonger. Cause of death is listed as burned, presumably a tragic domestic accident, and she was buried in a small covered coffin. Walker appears to be a family name for which I had no explanation at this point in my research, but read on.

In the 1851 Scotland Census at 6 Drummond Place Edinburgh, Jemima and Catherine are with their Aunt Catherine (Mrs. Ponsonby), while James Denoon, Jr. is at 6 Grove Street, Edinburgh with his Aunt Maria and Uncle Robert Peddie. Their father, James Denoon Young is enumerated in the 1851 England Census in lodgings at 31 Michaels Place, Brompton, Kensington – where his future wife and mother-in-law are also living.

In the 1861 England Census at 56 Stockwell Park Road, Brixton Jemima and James are with their step-mom Charlotte nee Taylor, and step siblings. Their sister Catherine is an assistant mistress at a school at 42 Kensington Park Gardens. Their father is enumerated in the 1861 Scotland Census lodging at 15 Gardners Crescent, Edinburgh. The death registration for Catherine Denoon Young is indexed at FreeBMD:

      Catherine D Young Jun(Q2)1868 Wandsworth 1d 312 age: 24

And she was buried on 7 April at St. Mary, Battersea.

Of the surviving children from the marriage of James Denoon Young and Jemima Jessie Foggo, James Denoon Young, Jr. and Jessie Stewart Robson were married on 30 Oct 1869 at All Saints, Battlebridge, London. His occupation is given as clerk. They moved to Edinburgh where I have found them enumerated in 1871, 1881, 1891 and 1901. They had two daughters: Gertrude Jessie (born 1871) and Annie Denoon (born 1875). Statutory Registers record James’s death:

      1914 Young James Denoon M 69 Morningside Edinburgh City/Midlothian 685/06 1088

Both the daughters were unmarried at home in 1901. They may have later married, and there may be descendants from this line, although I have not followed them any further than this. If you are such a descendant I would love to hear from you.

At this point distant cousins in Belgium sent me a scan of a Young Pedigree, apparently made around 1890 – for which many thank yous!  This turned out to be quite useful here. Among much else, the Pedigree had the following information:

      James Denoon [Young] = Jemima Foggo
                                                  Note: Great Grandaughter of              )
                                                  Neil Gow the Great Scottish Musician )
[their children]
      James        James Denoon = Jessie S Robson                           Jemima = John Linton
[and their children]
                       Gertrude Jessie     Annie Denoon                 Catherine Denoon       Annie
                                                                                                  ob. abt 24            ob. abt 10

And this serves as a useful tool in determining the accuracy of the document. So first, a glaring inaccuracy: Catherine Denoon and Annie are not children of Jemima [Young] and John Linton, but in fact, Jemima’s sisters. They did, however, both die young, Catherine at 24, but Annie at three years old (not ten). James Denoon [Young] and Jessie S Robson did indeed have the children assigned to them. I have no record of the first mentioned James, son of James Denoon [Young] and Jemima Foggo, but this is plausible given that three years elapsed between their marriage and the first recorded child, Jemima.

It seemed worth pursuing the marriage to John Linton, and just such a record exists. Jemima Young and John Linton (Banker) were married on 15 Oct 1861 at St George’s, Bloomsbury. The witnesses are James D Young (probably father, but possibly brother) and Zoe Taylor (step-aunt). They had many children:

      Ethel Jemima                1863-1912 died in New Zealand
            married Wilhelm Urban Rudolph Kummer in 1895 NZ
      Mary Gertrude born     1864
      Hubert Denoon born    1865
            married Mabel Ellen Bradley in 1906 NZ
      John Douglas                1866-1869
      Evelyn StClair                1868-1954 died in NZ
      Muriel                            1870-1960 died in NZ
      Kenneth McDonald       1874-1949 died in NZ
      Maud Elizabeth             1879-1955 died in NZ) twins
      Jessie Irene                  1879-1954 died in NZ)

New Zealand Death Index has Jemima Linton died in 1925 also in New Zealand, presumably the mother, but I have no idea at this point where the father, John ended up. Their last England census is 1881, and during the following decade they likely emigrated to New Zealand. As you see, I have marriage records for two of the children, so there may be descendants of these families reading this in New Zealand – in which case greetings to you as well!

The Linton connection in the Young Pedigree turned out to be correct. The Young Pedigree also noted that Jemima Jessie Foggo was a great granddaughter of Niel Gow. What of the Niel Gow connection; can we connect Jemima Jessie Foggo and Niel Gow? Working up the tree, I quickly discovered a Foggo/McDonald marriage in 1810, and, working down, a McDonald marriage in 1787. The will of Niel (or Neil) Gow notes his daughter Margaret Gow or McDonald and her daughter “Jimima” as beneficiaries. Here are the details.

The children of Niel Gow are well documented, so I'll only note that Scotland, Births and Bapatism have Margaret Gow, the daughter of Niel Gow and Margaret Wiseman, baptized at Little Dunkeld, Perthshire on 18 Nov 1759. Scotland, Select Marriages records her marriage to James McDonald on 30 May 1787 in Edinburgh, Midlothian. The only birth record for children of this couple is Flora born 8 Apr 1790. In addition, Niel Gow’s will mentions “Jimima”.

Jemima Jessie McDonald (daughter of James) and David Foggo were married 14 Aug 1810. A search in Scotland, Births and Baptisms yields the following children:

       Niel Gow Foggo                   born 1 Jul 1811

       Ann Foggo                           born 31 Oct 1812

       Margaret Gow Foggo          born 7 Oct 1814       

       Flora McDonald Foggo        bapt. 23 Oct 1826

The Scottish Law Reporter Vol 19, p.829 details an 1882 case involving property inherited by Niel Gow Foggo from his sister, Ann Walker Foggo, who died in 1845. Niel Gow Foggo had been missing since the early 1830s, and a nephew of his, David Foggo, resident in Calcutta, wished to succeed to the inheritance. Ann Walker must be the Ann listed above, and, if I’m right, was the aunt of poor Ann Walker Young (1843-1846) who died of burns in Perth. 

India, Death and Burials, India, Marriages, and India, Birth and Baptisms were useful here in tracing possible Foggo relatives. I can find a David Foggo of Calcutta, the son of John Thomas Foggo. The latter is enumerated, along with a brother (also David), sister, and mother, in the 1851 Scotland Census at 43 Dalhousie Street, Barony, Lanarkshire. The household consists of:       

       Jemima Foggo               54 Head         Annuitant       

       Margaret Gow Foggo    36 Daughter  Teacher of Music       

       David Foggo                  17 Son            Family Blacksmith       

       John Thomas Foggo      12 Son           Scholar at Home

Also in India, I have also found James Walker Foggo who married Amelia Fenwick Campbell on 8 May 1839 in Calcutta. They had several children including Ann Walker Foggo and James David MacDonald Foggo, names suggestive for this family. An unreferenced obituary for John Thomas Edward Fenwick Foggo (1853-1863), son of James Walker Foggo, and grandson of the late David Foggo, "Principal of Edinburgh Academy", while the gravestone of James Walker Foggo gives his date of death 23 October 1873 aged 51 years 11 months and 13 days, and describes him as son of the late David Foggo of Edinburgh.

Thus I have four more children to add to the four children in Scotland, Births and Baptisms from the marriage of David Foggo and Jemima Jessie McDonald:

       Jemima Jessie Foggo   born 1816-1821 (based on 1841 census age)       

       James Walker Foggo   born 10 Nov 1821 (calculated from age at death)       

       David Foggo                 born abt 1833       

       John Thomas Foggo   born about 1838

David and John Thomas are the strongest candidates, being present as brothers of Margaret Gow Foggo on the 1851 Scotland Census. James Walker has a good claim as being a son of one David Foggo, plus his middle name Walker and his use of Walker and MacDonald as middle names for his children. And finally Jemima Jessie because her given names are those of her mother, and the discovery of Ann Walker as a family name in this Foggo lineage both confirm the claim of the Young Pedigree

The claim on inheritance was upheld for David, son of John Thomas Foggo. Niel Gow Foggo was judged to be likely alive when his sister Ann Walker Foggo died in 1845, and subsequently missing and presumed dead by 1882. Incidentally, the court was correct in its judgment. Niel Gow Foggo died in Tasmania in 1870. His original disappearance in 1833 was due to a 7 year sentence of transportation. He resurfaced in Kent, 1844, receiving a further 15 year sentence of transportation for larceny. He died in 1870 at Port Arthur, Tasmania, where he taught the prison orchestra.

On the Foggo side, Scotland, Select Marriages records the marriage of Thomas Foggo and Anna Walker on 17 Sep 1768 in Little Dunkeld, Perthshire. Among their children is David Foggo, born 2 Jun 1779 and baptized on 6 June also in Little Dunkeld. This may be the David Foggo, husband of Jemima Jessie McDonald, and the schoolteacher of Edinburgh, and is probably the origin of the family name Walker.

The evidence so affirms the family claim of Jemima Jessie Foggo being a great granddaughter of Niel Gow. My relationship with him is somewhat indirect; my 3xgreat grandfather was Gow's great grandson-in-law! Here is his Lament for the death of his second wife, written 1805. Gow himseld died in 1807 aged 80.

Monday, July 20, 2015

Stephen Barrowfoot Coalminer

Murton Colliery near Seaham Durham by John Wilson Carmichael 1843
Elizabeth Beresford is almost certainly the mother of John Beresford, my step-2xgreat grandfather. I wrote that I would return to Elizabeth Beresford's origins. Of certain information there is little more to say, however, than noting that the Marriage Certificate for her marriage to William Fagan gives her father as Stephen Beresford, Coal Miner. Also, her census records give her place of birth as Tanfield, Durham and year of birth about 1821-1824. This is the best information I have for her origins, assuming she is giving the correct information on these documents.

But I do want to sketch some preliminary data, including a possible baptismal record for Elizabeth, and some sense of the itinerant life of one coal-mining family in particular. In short, Elizabeth Beresford is probably the daughter of Stephen Barrowfoot and Elizabeth Stevenson, and Stephen Barrowfoot is possibly the son of Ralph Barrafoot and Ann Gibson.

In this part of the country, the occupation of coal miner is pretty common, but not so the name Stephen Beresford - even taking into account the variant spellings observed through the records for son, John: Beresford, Berresford, Barresford, and even Barrowford. Other related names appear to be Berisford, Barefoot and Barrowfoot.

On the search engine, a good way to search for these variants is "B%r%fo%", where the % is a wildcard for any number of characters (including zero). Earlier records appear to have names such as Barrowfoot, while later ones are Beresford. This may indicate that the Barrowfoots died out to be replaced by Beresfords from outside the region. But it may also indicate that the name changed over time.

In concert with the name "Stephen", the search yields a limited number of hits. A few more hits arise if we enter "Stephen" as father. The results are consistent with very few individuals sharing the name in the Durham/Northumberland area, and only one in the early decades of the nineteenth century. The caveat here, of course, is that as more records become available, we may uncover more Stephen Beresfords (or B%r%fords).

There are no Beresfords baptized in Tanfield around the time of Elizabeth's birth. It is possible that our Elizabeth was not baptized at the parish church, St. Margaret's. However, if she was, a likely (or at least possible) record for Elizabeth's baptism might be that found on for Ann and Elizabeth Barrowfoot baptized in Tanfield, Durham in 1821. Bishops' Transcripts of these Tanfield parish baptisms are available for browsing during this time period (1820s) at Durham Diocese Bishop's Transcripts, 1639-1919, Durham, Tanfield, image 351/649 has:
       4 Mar 1821  Ann D[aughte]r of Stephen & Elizabeth Barrowfoot  Collier
       4 Mar 1821  Elizabeth D[aughte]r of Stephen & Elizabeth Barrowfoot   Collier

Ann and Elizabeth might be twins, or else the older of the two had missed out on being baptized previously. More on Ann below. Barrowfoot is similar to Barrowford, which you might remember is how the name of Elizabeth's son, John Beresford, was rendered in the 1851 census. Also in Tanfield, there is this 1818 marriage, presumably, of the parents of Ann and Elizabeth.
       7 Sep 1818 Stephen Barrowfoot married Elizabeth Stevenson,
       both of this chapelry, by banns

And just as there is the baptism of an Elizabeth Barrowfoot in Tanfield, followed by the marriage of our Elizabeth Beresford, whose married census returns give Tanfield as a place of birth, so too for Ann. One of the records found in a search of was the following marriage:
       St Paul's Gateshead (Church of England)
       22 August 1842
       Joseph Bestman (bachelor, pitman), full age, of Winlaton, son of Robert Bestford
       (pitman) married Ann Beresford (spinster), full age, of Winlaton, daughter of
       Stephen Beresford (pitman)

This corresponds to BMD Marriage Index:
       Sep1842 Gateshead 24 119 Joseph Bestford and Ann Bereford [sic]

This 1842 marriage for Joseph Bestford is the only one in this name until 1867 according to FreeBMD. The 1861 England Census has this household at Ernest Place, Durham, St Giles:
       Joseph Bestford  Head Mar 42 Coalminer  Newcastle on Tyne St Andrew
       Ann       Do          Wife  Mar 40                   Durham, Tanfield
       Joseph   Do         Son            6                        Do       Lanchester
       Stephen Do         Son            3                        Do       Usworth
       Robert   Do         Son            1                        Do       Washington

Assuming that this census record is for the same couple as the marriage, one wonders what had become of the children born between 1842 and 1855. But notice especially that for Ann and Elizabeth, we have baptisms in the name of Barrowfoot, both daughters of Stephen, Collier, followed by marriages for Ann Beresford/Bereford (1842 to Joseph Bestford) and Elizabeth Beresford (1849 to William Fagan), in each case daughter of Stephen Beresford, Pitman or Coal Miner respectively. Subsequently in census returns, Ann Bestford and Elizabeth Fagan both give Tanfield, Durham as their birthplace, and ages consistent with the baptisms.

Thus I strongly suspect these baptism and marriage records as belonging to the two sisters, the one of which is the mother of John Beresford. The following are possible siblings:
       2 Sep 1824 baptized at the Lying In Hospital, St John's parish,
       Newcastle upon Tyne: Stephen, Son of Stephen & Elizth Barrowfoot Pitman
       of Byker, Northumberland

       18 Jan 1828 baptized at the Chester Workhouse, Chester-le-Street,
       Margaret and Matthew, Daughter and Son of Stephen & Elizabeth Barrafoot

       16 Jun 1828 baptized at Gateshead, Durham,
       Mary, daughter of Stephen and Elizabeth Barrowfoot of Gateshead, Collier

If these are all the same family, I'm thinking Margaret and Matthew arrived at the workhouse unbaptized during the winter 1827/28, and their mother Elizabeth pregnant. By June, Stephen was back in work, and daughter Mary was born in Gateshead. From Tanfield to Newcastle to Chester-le-Street to Gateshead, the births illustrate economically marginal and itinerant lives.

England, Select Marriages, 1538-1973 has:
       7 Jul 1833 at Lanchester, Durham, Stephen Barasford and Jane Simpson

In the 1851 England Census at Collierley and Pontop, there is:
       Ann Barrasford         Head  Wid  81  Pauper   Durham, S Shields
       Stephen Barrasford  Son    Mar  57  Collier        Do      Plisemouth [Plawsworth]
       Jane            Do         Wife   Mar  51                    Do     Medomsley

Of this household, has the burial:
       1851 at Pontop for Ann Barrasford age 81

BMD Birth Index has the death registration indexes for:
       Jane Barrasford Jun1857 Gateshead 10a 296
       Stephen Beresford Sep1866 Gateshead 10a 359 age:76

For the latter, England, Select Deaths and Burials 1538-1991, has:
       Stephen Beresford Gateshead, Durham 10 Aug 1866 aged 76

The age at death of 76 in 1866 would indicate a birth in about 1790, while the census age of 57 in 1851 calculates to about 1794. During this period (and presumably records are incomplete), I can find only one baptism record for Stephen Beresford/Barrowfoot on
       Stephen Barrafoot [born] Feb 12 1797 [bapt. May 23 1798] 1st Son of
       Ralph Barrafoot of Chester Poor house Pitmn Native of Lamesley by
       his wife Ann Gibson native of South Shields.

This record - apart from the name - has two things in its favor. First, Chester-le-Street is close to Plawsworth, and second, Ann Gibson's nativity in South Shields matches that of the 81-year-old Ann Barrasford in the 1851 census. However, the date of birth doesn't match Stephen's death record or census return very well.

Ralph Barrafoot and Ann Gibson had two daughters Ann, both of whom died young. Ann daughter of Ralph Barfoot and Ann Gibson born  at Iveston in 24 Nov 1800 and baptized 28 Dec 1800 at Lanchester; and Ann daughter of Ralph Barfoot and Ann Gibson born at Iveston 22 Aug 1804 and baptized at Lanchester 30 Sep 1804, and is probably the Ann Barrowfoot buried at Gateshead in 1809, aged 5.

In looking for the marriage of Ralph Barrafoot and Ann Gibson, I found this in England, Select Marriages 1538-1973:
       27 April 1796 at Chester-le-Street Stephen Barrass and Ann Gibson

Which suggests another spelling variant; perhaps Barras (or Barrows) was a nickname for Barrowfoot. Using Stephen Barrass as a search term yielded this 1841 England Census at Winlaton:
       Stephen Barras  44  Miner  Yes [born in Durham]
       Jane         do      49              Y
       Ann         do        21              Y
       Elizth      do        19              Y
       Margaret do       16              Y
       Stephen   do      13             No
       Matthew  do       12             No

The first names are consistent with the names discovered above. Mary, baptized in Gateshead, is missing from this list. The ages are consistent with those discovered above except that Stephen (the son) and Margaret are transposed in the census list. It further suggests that Ann and Elizabeth are not twins. Stephen, the father, has an age which is correct for the baptism in 1798 of the son of Ralph Barrafoot/Barrass and Ann Gibson.

The 1861 England Census at Brancepeth Colliery has as lodgers of William and Ann Love:
       Stephen Barrass  Lodger  Widr  71  Coal Miner  [Durham] Chester le St
       Sam Smith              do      Mar   35        do                do        Stanhope
       Margaret do            do      Mar   36                            do        Bp Auckland

This is possibly Stephen Barrowfoot and his daughter and son-in-law. BMD Marriage Index has the names Samuel Smith and Margaret Beresford on the same page for Dec1849 Gateshead 24 171, while have the names associated with each other on their index, and with Stephen Beresford as father of the bride.

If these are the same family as above, then by 1871 Samuel and Margaret Smith are living as head of household and wife at Cottage Row, New Durham, and, as we have seen, Stephen had died at Gateshead in 1866. The given birthplace on the census for Margaret Smith, Bishop Auckland, is some way from the baptismal records for Stephen Barrowfoot's family, but this may only be more evidence of how far Stephen had to travel to find work in the late 1820s.

And finally, we can follow the documentation for Stephen Barrowfoot baptized at Byker Hill. There are many records for him; he married three times, and lived long. His death certificate records (BMD Death Index: Stephen Barrasford Jun1917 Easington 10a 500 age:95) an age of 95 in 1917, although baptized at the Lying In Hospital in 1824, he was more likely 93 years old.

BMD Marriage Index has marriages of:
       Stephen Barrisford and Mary Punshon Mar1849 Durham 24 66
       Stephen Beresford and Philippa Bray Dec1890 Gateshead 10a 247
       Stephen Barrasford and Mary Ann Taylor Dec1908 Easington 10a 765
(the latter is also available as a parish record from durhamrecordsonline, and confirms the groom's father as Stephen Barrasford)

Family histories and census returns show these to be all the same person. The 1851 Census at South Hetton, Haswell, Durham has what may be the young family:
       Stephen Barsford  Head  Mar  23  [Coal miner]   Newcastle
       Mary        Do         Wife   Mar  21                         Lamesley
       William    Do          Son              1                         St Gilesgate

More certainly, the 1861 England Census at South Moor, Greencroft, Durham has:
       Stephen Beresford  Head  Mar  43  Coal Miner     Newcastle on Tyne
       Mary          Do         Wife  Mar  30                          Burley Durham
       William      Do         Son   Un    11                          St Giles  Do
       Elizabeth    Do        Daur  Un   6                            Heddon-on-the-Wall
       Matthew     Do        Son   Un    3                           Walbottle Northumberland
       Margaret    Do        Daur  Un    1                           Lanchester Durham

From the places of birth of their children Mary and Stephen's family appears to have moved around as much as his parents'. And they continued to do so, as we can see by the 1881 England Census at Chopwell, Durham:
       Stephen Baresford  Head  Mar  59   Coal Miner     Northd Byker Hill
       Mary          Do         Wife   Mar   56  Wife                Durham Burtly
       Matthew    Do          Son   Unm  23  Coal Miner     Northd Walbottle
       Mary A      Do          Daur  Unm  17                              Do   Oakenshaw
       Isabella      Do         Daur  Unm  15                              Do   Coopen
       Jane           Do         Daur  Unm 12                          Durham New Durham
[new page]
       Stephen Baresford  Son              5                          Durham North Pitt
       Elizabeth Hodgson  Serv  Unm  15                              Do     Heathley

In 1891 at 24 Thomas Street, Edmondsley, Durham having remarried:
       Stephen Barresford  Head  Mar  69  Coal Miner                Northd Bicker Hill
       Philippa       Do        Wife  Mar  66                                    Cornwall Len Tae
[new page]
       Stephen Baresford   Son   Unm  15  Coal Miner (Driver)  Durham Lanchester

In 1901 at 2 Johnson Terrace, Shotton, Durham:
       Stephen Beresford  Head  M  79  Retired Coal Miner     Durham Tanfield
       Philippa     Do          Wife  M   77                                      Cornwall St Hews

And in 1911, still at 2 Johnson Terrace, having remarried again:
       Stephen Barrasford  Head  90  Married  Retired Miner Hewer
                                                                                               Northumberland Nafaton
       Mary Barrasford       Wife  60  Married                            Lancashire Radcliffe

The 1911 census form is signed Stephen Barrasford, which would indicate his preferred spelling. It also confirms they had been married for two years (and had no children together). Some of the descendants go by Beresford and others by Barrasford. The sons William and Matthew each name a child Stephen Stephenson (born 1870) and Stephen Stephenson (born 1893) respectively, presumably after Elizabeth Stevenson paternal grandmother of William and Matthew.

Thus, I have baptisms of six children of Stephen and Elizabeth Barrowfoot (or some phonetic variant) between 1821 and 1828. These are consistent with there being only one couple with those names. I have marriages of four children of father Stephen Beresfords (or some phonetic variant) with first names that match the baptisms (Ann, Elizabeth, Stephen and Margaret). Three of these are also linked by the name Stephenson/Stevenson; Ann and Elizabeth would appear to be children of Stephen Barrowfoot and Elizabeth Stevenson, while Stephen Barrasford (junior) has grandchildren with Stephenson as a given name.

Then there is the 1841 Census of the Barras family which has five of the six given names of the Stephen and Elizabeth Barrowfoot children. And the association of Ralph Barrowfoot and Ralph Barras as husband of Ann Gibson.

My hypothesis runs:
       Ralph Barrowfoot/Barrass married Ann Gibson 1796 and had three children.
       Ann died in 1851 aged 81:
              Stephen   1797-1866
              Ann         1800- ?      (obviously died before 1804)
              Ann         1804-1809

       Stephen Barrowfoot married 1818 Elizabeth Stephenson and had six children.
       Elizabeth must have died between 1828 and 1833:
              Ann         1819-1865 married 1842 Joseph Bestford
              Elizabeth 1821-?      married 1849 William Fagan
              Stephen   1824-1917 married 1849 Mary Punshon,
                                                              1890 Philippa Bray,
                                                              1908 Mary Taylor
              Margaret 1826- ?      married 1849 Samuel Smith
              Matthew  1827- ?
              Mary       1828- ?
       Stephen Barrowfoot as Barasford married 1833 Jane Simpson. They had no children,
       but show up in the 1841 census as Barras. Jane died in 1857 and Stephen in 1866.

       Elizabeth Barrowfoot as Berresford had a son out of wedlock,
       father possibly John Caldcleugh.
              John        1845-1912 married Mary Ann Kennett
       Elizabeth Barrowfoot as Beresford married 1849 William Fagan. They had no children.
       William Fagan died in 1875.

Evaluate the data for yourself, and, should you pass it on, remember to qualify it as my hypothesis.

Thursday, June 4, 2015

The Attorney's Clerk

Framwellgate Bridge, Durham (illustration from George Gilbert, Cathedral Cities of England 1905)])
The previous post ended with a mystery. John Beresford, my step-2xgreat grandfather, was born at the Crossgate Union Workhouse, Durham in 1845 to unwed mother Elizabeth Beresford. On the birth certificate there are places for father's name and father's rank or profession; each of them is left blank. On his marriage certificate there are also places for father's name and father's rank or profession; and they are given as John Beresford deceased, Attorney's Clerk. So, there is a contradiction betwwen these records.

It is understandable that our John Beresford might want to invent a fictitious father to avoid embarrassment. John is a common enough name that the fiction might never be discovered. But why Attorney's Clerk? This is an uncommon occupation, and I wonder why it came into John's mind when he had to choose an occupation for a father he never knew. Possibly he just pulled this occupation out of thin air; it just came to mind. Another possibility is that there was an Attorney's Clerk who he knew, perhaps a man who treated him as a father - although he did, of course, have a step-father, William Fagan. But just maybe, his father really was an Attorney's Clerk named John.

For all their errors, ancient and modern, census records really are quite amazing. I tend to cite them in household units, but the enumerator books contain household upon household, and one can obtain a view of the neighborhood by examining a series of records around the household of particular interest. In the previous post I cited the 1851 enumeration of John, his mother and step-father (as William and Elizabeth Faigan and John Barrowford). However, in reviewing the whole page, the occupation of Attorney's Clerk just jumped out at me! Here is the household in question; it is only three schedules away from the Faigans.

1851 England Census at Framwellgate, Durham:
       Thomas Caldcleugh  Head  Widr 66  Joiner Journeyman  Durham Durham Elvet
       John          Do           Son    U      26  Attorney's Clerk           Do     Framwellgate
       Cathrine    Do           Daur   U      22                                      Do             Do
       Sarah         Do          Niece          11                                      Do              Do

and the schedule next to the Faigans on the other side:
       Isabella Caldcleugh  Head  U     36   Laundress               Durham Framwellgate
       Fredrick     Do           Son           15  Grocers App                  Do           Do
[new page]
       Sarah Caldcleugh     Daur          11  Scholar                     Durham Framwellgate

The Fagans (as other documents attest) and Caldcleughs knew each other as more than neighbors. If you look back at the marriage certificate for William Fagan and Elizabeth Beresford (about 18 months previously, 27 Oct 1849), you may notice that one of the witnesses to the marriage is Cathrine Caldcleugh. I am not sure of the pronunciation, but I suspect it must be something like "Colcluff".

During the next decades the Fagans and Caldcleughs moved apart. By 1861, the Fagans are living at Claypath, Durham, while there are still Caldcleughs at Framwellgate. Frederick Caldcleugh, 26, is a "Cabinet Maker employing 1 boy", with a wife and three children. In the same household, Frederick's uncle John Caldcleugh, 36, is a "Solicitor's Managing Cl[erk]".

In 1871, John Caldcleugh, 46, "Solicitor's Clerk", is still at Framwellgate, now married to Hannah Webster, and with their son, daughter and father-in-law, By 1881, they had moved to Elvet at which time he was still a "Solicitor's Clerk". By 1891, still in Elvet he was County Court Clerk. He died 27 January 1894, a county court clerk, aged 68.

The evidence for paternity is circumstantial. But I don't think that John Beresford's choice of occupation for his father on his marriage certificate arose by chance. John Caldcleugh may have been a father figure in John Beresford's life, and the latter may have remembered his occupation of Attorney's Clerk. But John Beresford must have had a father, and John Caldcleugh must be a person of interest to be ruled in or out.

John Caldcleugh had two children by Hannah Webster. His daughter Mary Isabella (1869-1923) died unmarried. His son Thomas Henry (1866-1958) married Ellen Atkinson (1871-1959). They had two daughters: Ruth, who died in infancy 1912; and Mary (1908-?), who married Cyril Edward Stabler (1903-1965). Cyril and Mary Stabler had a daughter, who is probably still living.

Why do I mention John Caldcleugh's known descendants? In the absence of documentary evidence, it is possible that John Beresford's ancestry might be solved by DNA analysis. As the price of genealogical DNA sequencing comes down we might yet find a genetic link (or else rule one out) between Beresford and Caldcleugh descendants. Alas, as a step-descendant I have none of John Beresford's DNA, although I would gladly coordinate such a project. Contact me if you're interested.

Wednesday, June 3, 2015

The Boy Beresford and His Mother

from Mayhew, London Labour and the London Poor, Vol 2. (1851)

Investigative journalist Henry Mayhew published three volumes of commentary on street labor in mid-Victorian Britain, with interviews of some of the workers. To hear the voice of one London Scavenger (Mayhew renders their accents in his text) try London Labour and the London Poor (1851), pages 224-226. Among the workers, there were those who kept the city clean. Any big city generates refuse. In the nineteenth century, add horse manure to the mix, and the task of keeping the mess under control was considerable. Those with the unenviable occupation of scavenger scraped the streets clean with shovels and brooms, work that was repetitive, unskilled, and with little room for advancement. They worked in gangs, so perhaps one could rise to the position of a foreman of sorts. At least their weekly 12 shillings or so, kept them in cheap lodgings and food.

In this post, see two sets of records, one already established as belonging to John Beresford, and some earlier ones, related to each other, which I believe belong to the same John Beresford. And the Scavenger? Well read on, as move from Mayhew's London to Durham.

John Beresford, my step-2xgreat grandfather, has uncertain origins, but he was certainly from Durham. This post contains some repetition of information previously posted on this blog, but also previously unposted census returns which may provide some of his earlier history, and a marriage to direct future research on his family of origin.

Clearly belonging to John Beresford we have the following: marriage certificate (1867), census returns from 1871, 1881, 1891, 1901, and 1911, and death registration (1912).

BMD Marriage Index
       John Beresford and Mary Ann Kennett Dec 1867 Sunderland 10a 581

GRO Copy
       Marriage Solemnized at the Parish Church in the [...illegible...] of Hendon
       Bishopwearmouth in the County of Durham.
       When Married:                          Oct 2 1867
       Name and Surname:                 John Beresford
                                                         Mary Ann Kennett
       Age:                                          22
       Condition:                                  Bachelor
       Rank or Profession:                   Mariner
                                                         [left blank]
       Residence at time of marriage: 22 Lodge Terrace
                                                        3 Lodge Terrace
       Father's name and surname:    John Beresford
                                                        William Kennett
       Rank or Profession of Father:   Attorney's Clerk
                                                        Coast Guard
       Married in the Parish Church according to the Rites and Ceremonies of the
       Established Church, by Superintendant Registrar Certificate by me,
              Alexr Maclerman Curate
       This Marriage was solemnized between us,
              John Beresford
              Mary Ann Kennett
       in the Presence of us,
              R. W. Gowland
              Mahala Kennett

Census Data
1871 England Census John Beresford in his own household at 11 Magdalene Street, St. Giles, Durham, Durham.
       John Beresford   Head              Mar  25    Porter          Durham City
       Mary Ann do       Wife                Mar  23                       Essex, Shoeburyness
       Ann E       do       daur                         2                        Durham, Sunderland
       Rosetta E  do      daur                       11 mo                      do    , City
       William Kennett   Father-in-law  Mar  52    Labourer     Kent, Monkton
       Ann          do       Mother-in-law Mar  54                        Devonshire, Budleigh
       Rosetta M do      Sister-in-law            13                       Yorks., Kettleness
[Source Citation: Class: RG10; Piece: 4967; Folio: 46; Page: 42; GSU roll: 847430]

1881 England Census John Beresford in his own household at 30 Duke Street, Monkwearmouth, Sunderland, Durham.
       John Beresford   Head  [Mar]  36  Seaman    Durham City
       Mary Ann do       Wife      do    33                   Shoeburyness, Essex
       Annie E    do       Daur             12  Scholar     Durham, Sunderland
       Minnie K  do         do                 6       do             do    , Langlemoor
       Ada M      do         do                4       do              do    , Sunderland
       William A  do       Son                2                        do    , Brandon
       Thomas K do        do                 5 mos                 do    , Hendon
[Source Citation: Class: RG11; Piece: 5005; Folio: 99; Page: 71; GSU roll: 1342205]

Occupational Data
Bullmer’s Directory of North Yorkshire (1890), p.270
       Beresford John, constable, Board of Trade; h 11 Gloucester street [Middlesbrough] 

And also p.265:                
       Board of Trade -- Surveyors’ Office, Cleveland buildings, Cleveland street; Surveyors, Capt. William C. Johnson and Capt. James N. Armit; John Beresford, constable

Census Data
1891 England Census John Beresford in his own household at 11 Gloucester Street, Middlesbrough, Yorkshire.
       John Beresford  Head    M  46  B.T. Tapeholder Slatman    Durham, Durham
       Mary Ann Do      Wife     M  44                                              Essex, Shoeburyness
       Amelia A  Do      Daur     S   19  Cashier                               Durham, Durham
       Minnie K  Do      Daur     S   16  Cashier                                   Do    , Langley Moor
       Ada M      Do      Daur          13                                                 Do     , Sunderland
       William A Do      Son            12  Scholar                                    Do    , Langley Moor
       Thomas K Do     Son            10     Do                                       Do     , Sunderland
       Albert E    Do     Son             5      Do                                    Yorkshire, Middlesbrough
       Adela V    Do      Daur           4      Do                                         Do      ,         Do
       Robert B Hayes  Visitor  S   29  Dramatic Artist                     Ireland
[Source Citation: Class: RG12; Piece: 4009; Folio: 17; Page: 28; GSU roll 6099119]

1901 England Census John Beresford in his own household at 80 Granville Road, Linthorpe, Middlesbrough, Yorkshire                
       John Beresford  Head  M  56  Retired Seaman         Durham, Durham                
       Mary Ann    Do   Wife   M  54                                    Essex, Shoebury.                
       William A    Do   Son     S  22  Clerk Correspondence in Wellington Steel Foundry                                                                                                 Durham, Brandon                
       Thomas K    Do   Son   S  20  Apprentice Mechanical Engineer       
                                                                                               Do   , Sunderland                
       Albert E       Do   Son        15  Apprentice Marine Draughtsman                                                                                                                               Yorks, Middlesbrough                
       Ada D          Do   Daur     14                                           Do   ,      Do
[Source Citation: Class: RG13; Piece: 4581; Folio: 99; Page:35]

1911 England Census John Beresford in his own household at 19 Upton Street, Middlesbrough, Yorkshire                
       John Beresford         Head  66  Married  44  10  8  2 
                                                  Mariner  Rigger Iron Works Blast Furnace  
                                                                    Parish St. Margarets, City of Durham                
       Mary Ann Beresford  Wife  64  
[Source Citation Class: RG:14; Piece: 29259]

In 1911, John and Mary Ann had been married almost 44 years, and the census records that in 1911 eight of their ten children were still alive. The previous census returns enumerate nine children, while a tenth must have been born and died between censuses, thus escaping enumeration. Inspection of the Birth Index reveals Mary Ann K Beresford born 1872 and died 1874, 1 year old. The third quarter of 1874 must have been difficult for them since Rosetta Eveline also died aged 4. The BMD Death Index has Mary Ann K Beresford Sep 1874 Durham 10a 263 age:1 and Rosetta Eveline Beresford Durham 10a 267 age:4, that is, only a few pages apart in the register. I suspect they both died of the same infectious disease within a few days of each other. At the same time, they had a three- and a six-year-old at home.

Here is a list of their children, and their years of birth, death, and spouses' names:
       Ann Elizabeth Beresford           1868-1938             (Joshua Naylor Hemingway)
       Rosetta Eveline Beresford         1870-1874
       Amelia Augusta Beresford         1871-1959             (John "Jack" Tilley)
       Mary Ann K[ennett?] Beresford 1872-1874
       Minnie Kennett Beresford          1874-1956             (unmarried)
       Ada Matilda Beresford               1876-1964             (John William Dalkin)
       William Adolphus Beresford       1879-1965            (Lilian Mabel Edwards)
       Thomas Kennett Beresford         1880-1950            (Delia Meehan)
       Albert Edward Beresford            1885-?                   (Edith Barker)
       Adela Victoria Beresford            1887-1969             (George Cecil Cox)

BMD Death Index John Beresford Jun 1912 Stockton 10a 71 age:67

GRO Copy (as reported by Duncan Brown)
       "JOHN BERESFORD death certificate JUNE QUARTER Stockton 10A 71: 
       died 3 MAY 1912, at 5 The Green, Norton, Stockton, county of Durham, 
       aged 67 years of acute pneumonia syncope. JOHN's occupation was 
       MASTER MARINER MERCHANT SERVICE. Informant was his daughter 
       A.E. HEMINGWAY, present at his death. Her address was 41 Chester road, 

It is easy to see how all the above records are for the same John Beresford. There is the Beresford-Kennett marriage. The in-laws are present for the 1871 census (and earlier censuses confirm that William Kennett of Monkton, Kent was a Coast Guard, and that he and his wife had a daughter Amelia in Shoeburyness), and the next census records are held together by names and places of birth.

From the above documentation, John Beresford would have been born in St. Margaret's, Durham about 1845. And there is a birth registration for one John Berresford at the correct time and place. Others have come across this before me, and I first posted on this two years ago. Subsequent experience of genealogy has served to make this origin all the more plausible to me. The discrepancies in spelling and age are actually insignificant as we will see.

BMD Birth Index John Beresford Jun 1845 Durham 24 104

GRO Copy
       When and where born:          Eighteenth of May 1845
                                                      at the Union Workhouse Crossgate Durham
       Name (if any):                       John                    
       Sex:                                       Boy
       Name and surname of father: [left blank]
       Name, surname and maiden surname of mother:
                                                      Elizabeth Berresford
       Occupation of father:             [left blank]
       Signature, description and residence of informant:
                                                      The mark of Elizabeth x Berresford Mother
                                                      Union Workhouse Crossgate Durham
       When registered:                   Twelfth of June 1845
        Signature of registrar:           Thomas Clamp, Registrar

Census data
Searching the 1861 England census for John Beresford born about 1845 in Durham, I found this one:
1861 England Census John Barresford in the household of William Fagan at Claypath, St. Nicholas, Durham, Durham.
       William Fagan    Head   Mar  47  Scavenger                   Ireland
       Elizabeth Fagan  Wife   Mar  37                                      Durham, Tanfield
       John Barresford  Stepson       15  Painter's Apprentice   City of Durham, St. Margaret's
[Source Citation: Class: RG9; Piece: 3743; Folio: 57; Page: 23; GSU roll: 543180]

In 1851 the same family unit with alternate spelling is found here:
1851 England Census John Barrowford in the household of William Faigan at Framwell Gate, St. Oswald, Durham, Durham.
       William Faigan   Head   Mar  40  Labourer & Mason     London
       Elizth      Do       Wife    Mar 28                                       Durham, Tanfield
       John Barrowford                     5  Scholar                              Do    , St Margrets
[Source Citation: Class: HO107; Piece: 2390; Folio: 195; Page: 25; GSU roll: 87068]

There is also a marriage index entry 1849 for Elizabeth Beresford and William Fagan.
       BMD Marriage Index Dec 1849 Durham 24 120

GRO Copy
       Marriage Solemnized at the Register Office in Durham in the County of Durham.
       When Married:                          Oct 27 1849
       Name and Surname:                 William Fagan
                                                         Elizabeth Beresford
       Age:                                           36
       Condition:                                  Bachelor
       Rank or Profession:                   Labourer
                                                         [left blank]
       Residence at time of marriage: Framwell Gate Durham
                                                        No 50 Framwell Gate Durham
       Father's name and surname:    James Fagan
                                                        Stephen Beresford
       Rank or Profession of Father:   Labourer
       Married in the Register Office by Superintendant Registrar Certificate by me,
       This Marriage was solemnized between us,
              X the mark of William Fagan
              X the mark of Elizabeth Beresford
       in the Presence of us,
              Cathrine Caldcleugh
              Thomas Burns

William and Elizabeth are still alive to be enumerated in the 1871 England Census at Claypath, St. Nicholas, Durham, Durham:
       William Fagan     Head   Mar  70  Scavenger       Ireland, Westmeath
       Elizabeth  Fagan Wife    Mar  49                          Durham, Tanfield

After this, I do not have further records for Elizabeth, but it would appear from the Death Index that William Fagan died in 1875, based on his name, age and location.
       BMD Death Index William Fagan Dec1875 Durham 10a 216 age:70

It's possible that a marriage between Elizabeth Fagan and John Taylor in Durham Sep 1876 is hers.

The "London" birthplace for William Faigan of the 1851 census is probably incorrect, and Westmeath, Ireland correct. His year of birth varies between 1800 and 1814, his age inflating toward the end of his life. With a much younger wife, he may have deliberately underplayed his age, so perhaps 1801-1805 is more realistic. For two censuses he worked as a Scavenger in Durham, which was presumably his steady occupation in the 1860s.

There are spelling errors/variants, but there is enough consistency in the information to see these earlier (1845-1861) documents (and the 1871 census for William and Elizabeth) as belonging to the same family. The sequence of events shows that Elizabeth Beresford gave birth to a John out of wedlock. She later married William Fagan, but the boy retained his last name. John's surname has been rendered: Berresford (1845 birth certificate), Beresford (his mother's 1849 marriage certificate), Barrowford (1851 census), and Barresford (1861 census).

I am also sure that these documents describe the same John Beresford as the later ones. The following tables show the consistency for place of birth and date of birth for the documents. First, place of birth:
       1845 Birth Certificate: Crossgate Union Workhouse
                               [in St. Margaret's, Durham]
       1851 Census:  Durham, St, Margrets
       1861 Census:  Durham, St. Margaret's
       1871 Census:  Durham City
       1881 Census:  Durham City
       1891 Census:  Durham, Durham
       1901 Census:  Durham, Durham
       1911 Census:  Parish of St. Margaret's City of Durham

The places of birth for these documents are all consistent at the city level, plus the place of birth given on the 1911 census matches the first three documents down to the parish level.

Next, age:
       1845 Birth Certificate gives date of birth 18 May 1845
       1851 Census on 30 Mar 1851     age given: 5     should be: 5
       1861 Census on 7 Apr 1861        age given: 15   should be: 15
       Marriage Certificate 2 Oct 1867   age given: 22   should be 22
       1871 Census on 2 Apr 1871        age given: 25   should be 25
       1881 Census on 3 Apr 1881        age given: 36   should be: 35
       1891 Census on 5 Apr 1891       age given: 46    should be: 45
       1901 Census on 31 March 1901 age given: 56   should be: 55
       1911 Census on 2 Apr 1911       age given: 66   should be: 65
       Death Registration 3 May 1912   age given: 67   should be: 66

John Beresford appears to gain an extra year between 1871 and 1881, Note his 1867 marriage and 1871 census records both match the putative prior records. A similar exercise with respect to his wife Mary Ann Kennett Beresford shows that she gains an extra year between 1881 and 1891.

I am convinced by the consistency among the documents that they all belong to the same person. If I'm wrong and the first three records belong to a different John Beresford/ Berresford/ Barresford/ Barrowford then he left no other documentation after 1861. He may have died unrecorded in further BMD or census documents (for example, by emigration). It would, of course, be an extraordinary coincidence that two John Ber(r)esfords were born at about the same time and place. In addition, it would be harder to explain the absence of documents prior to 1867 for our John Beresford. Over the last couple of years I must have searched for over a thousand post-1837 civil birth records and can recall only a couple of times being unable to find one. I have not given up on the possibility of finding irrefutable evidence connecting our John Beresford to the Fagans - William's death registration may be one place to look, or an independent source on our John Beresford's birthday. However, I do believe the evidence is strong enough already.

Stephen Beresford, Elizabeth's father, would be my step-4xgreat grandfather, and I'll have a little to say about him in another post. But there is a mystery to be solved. On his birth certificate, John Beresford has no father listed. On his marriage certificate John (presumably) gives his father as John Beresford, Attorney's Clerk. Now, I can understand that John would make up a father's name and occupation to avoid embarrassment. Why not Mariner or Labourer or Coalminer, an occupation common to the region? Attorney's Clerk sounds rather unusual and specific for a fictitious father. But I have a person of interest. And he is the topic of the next post.